90 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2022
  2. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. consoling herself, however, with the discovery, which her keen eye soon made, that the lace on Mrs. Thorpe’s pelisse was not half so handsome as that on her own.

      The pelisse, a popular garment most recently revived through the iconic yellow model worn by Ana Taylor-Joy in Autumn de Wilde’s Emma (2020), might be included as a footnote in the twin history of fashion and ecological degradation.

      By donning a pelisse, Mrs. Allen and Mrs. Thorpe, whatever their rivalries, were both at the cusp of early nineteenth-century fashion. Austen herself owned at least two pelisses, as historian Hilary Davidson has demonstrated. The pelisse, an overdress, was developed partly in response to the new Empire-period silhouette and partly due the “muslin disease” or influenza that ailed young women wearing fashionable lightweight fabrics in freezing weather.

      In the colder months, pelisses could be lined with fur, so Mrs. Allen’s observation that Mrs. Thorpe’s lace is not as handsome would indicate that this scene takes place in the warmer months. The pelisse’s popularity led it to replace the fur cloaks of the earlier eighteenth century. Soon, though, pelisses themselves would be replaced with fur coats, which gained popularity throughout the nineteenth century, reaching a high point in the 1850s. Their popularity was in large part due to new methods of processing fur, which made it more supple (Fashioned 86). The consumption of fur and sealskin jackets, as well as feathers and cotton, throughout the period would lead to the devastation (e.g., India’s cotton industry) of ecosystems (71).

      As we read these lines, then, we are reminded, of Austen’s critical eye for the consumer habits of her time. Although her critique here pertains to petty fashion rivalry, when reading about fashion items in her novels, we might find ourselves considering not only how little our fashion rivalries have changed but also how fashion and environmental degradation are historically linked.

      For more on the pelisse, the spencer, and muslin, head over to Austenprose to read Hilary Davidson's post on Regency fashion in Emma (2020).

      Works Cited

  3. Jan 2022
  4. Nov 2021
    1. Monto, A. S. (2021). The Future of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination—Lessons from Influenza. New England Journal of Medicine, 0(0), null. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2113403

    2. Readministration of influenza vaccine has become an annual event for much of the population, in response to both waning immunity and the appearance of variants, termed antigenic drift, necessitating updated vaccines. Even when there is no substantial drift, revaccination is recommended because of waning immunity. But antigenic drift is a constant issue and is monitored globally, with vaccine composition updated globally twice a year on the basis of recommendations from a World Health Organization consultation.

      Influenza vaccines need to be updated yearly to counter (1) waning immunity and (2) antigenic drift.

      Antigenic drift is monitored globally and the WHO makes recommendations for the updates.

    3. Thus, the value of influenza vaccines, now given to as many as 70% of people in some age groups, lies not in eliminating outbreaks but in reducing them and preventing severe complications.

      The goal of influenza vaccines is to prevent severe complications and to reduce outbreaks — not to prevent them.

      As many as 70% of some age groups get influenza vaccines.

    4. Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed symptomatic infection is never higher than 50 to 60%, and in some years it is much lower.

      Vaccine effectiveness for influenza vaccines for symptomatic infection is never higher than 50-60% and some years it is much slower.

  5. Oct 2021
  6. Sep 2021
  7. Aug 2021
  8. Jul 2021
  9. Jun 2021
  10. May 2021
  11. Apr 2021
    1. Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events. (2010). The 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccination Campaign: Summary of a Workshop Series. National Academies Press (US). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK54185/

  12. Mar 2021
    1. Seale, H., Heywood, A. E., McLaws, M.-L., Ward, K. F., Lowbridge, C. P., Van, D., & MacIntyre, C. R. (2010). Why do I need it? I am not at risk! Public perceptions towards the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine. BMC Infectious Diseases, 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-10-99

  13. Feb 2021
    1. Pastor-Barriuso, R., Pérez-Gómez, B., Hernán, M. A., Pérez-Olmeda, M., Yotti, R., Oteo-Iglesias, J., Sanmartín, J. L., León-Gómez, I., Fernández-García, A., Fernández-Navarro, P., Cruz, I., Martín, M., Delgado-Sanz, C., Larrea, N. F. de, Paniagua, J. L., Muñoz-Montalvo, J. F., Blanco, F., Larrauri, A., & Pollán, M. (2020). Infection fatality risk for SARS-CoV-2 in community dwelling population of Spain: Nationwide seroepidemiological study. BMJ, 371, m4509. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4509

  14. Jan 2021
  15. Oct 2020
  16. Aug 2020
    1. a new strain of influenza virus against which no previous immunity exists and that demonstrates human-to-human transmission could result in a pandemic with millions of fatalities2
  17. Jul 2020
  18. Jun 2020
    1. Simpson, C. R., Thomas, B. D., Challen, K., De Angelis, D., Fragaszy, E., Goodacre, S., Hayward, A., Lim, W. S., Rubin, G. J., Semple, M. G., & Knight, M. (2020). The UK hibernated pandemic influenza research portfolio: Triggered for COVID-19. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, S1473309920303984. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30398-4

  19. May 2020
  20. Apr 2020
    1. Jefferson, T., Jones, M., Al Ansari, L. A., Bawazeer, G., Beller, E., Clark, J., Conly, J., Del Mar, C., Dooley, E., Ferroni, E., Glasziou, P., Hoffman, T., Thorning, S., & Van Driel, M. (2020). Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Part 1 - Face masks, eye protection and person distancing: Systematic review and meta-analysis [Preprint]. Public and Global Health. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.30.20047217

  21. Jun 2018