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  1. Last 7 days
    1. Autopoiesis is just one of several current theories of life, including the chemoton[20] of Tibor Gánti, the hypercycle of Manfred Eigen and Peter Schuster,[21] [22] [23] the (M,R) systems[24][25] of Robert Rosen, and the autocatalytic sets[26] of Stuart Kauffman, similar to an earlier proposal by Freeman Dyson.[27] All of these (including autopoiesis) found their original inspiration in Erwin Schrödinger's book What is Life?[28] but at first they appear to have little in common with one another, largely because the authors did not communicate with one another, and none of them made any reference in their principal publications to any of the other theories.
  2. Jan 2022
    1. moviepilot.de 6,1/10 IMDB 5,8/10 · 150

      Muskelpaket und Einzelgänger Mosk (Thomas Sarbacher) hat alles andere als diesen süßen Labradorwelpen im Kopf: Er trainiert seit Wochen hart für die anstehenden gefängnisinternen Meisterschaften im Gewichtheben. So sträubt er sich zunächst auch vehement gegen das Projekt der neuen Gefängnisdirektorin Gloria (Clelia Sarto), bei dem ausgewählte Häftlinge Welpen zu Blindenhunden ausbilden sollen. Leider hilft weder sein abweisendes Verhalten noch ein klares „Nein“, er wird gegen seinen Willen für das Programm ausgewählt und zieht kurz darauf zusammen mit fünf weiteren Teilnehmern und Knastkumpanen in einen speziellen Trakt der Vollzugsanstalt. filmstarts.de 3,5/5

      Ein Häftling findet sich gegen seinen Willen in einem Pilotprojekt wieder, bei dem er und fünf Mitgefangene Welpen zu Blindenhunden ausbilden. Unterhaltsamer Gefängnisfilm, der die Klischees des Genres umschifft. epdFilm 6/10

    1. moviepilot.de 5,8/10 IMDB 5,8/10 · 33K · Metascore: 77 Parents Guide

      In den Tiefen des Weltalls, weit entfernt von unserem Sonnensystem, leben Monte (Robert Pattinson) und seine kleine Tochter Willow (Jessie Ross) gemeinsam auf einem ramponierten Raumschiff, dessen Besatzung vor einiger Zeit noch aus vielen verurteilten Schwerverbrechern bestand, die sich mit einer gefährlichen Mission von ihren Strafen freikauften. Mit Experimenten wurden sie von der wahnsinnigen Reproduktionswissenschaftlerin Dibs (Juliette Binoche) gequält, bei denen bis auf Monte und Willow alle ums Leben kamen. Monte ist ein stiller Mann, der sich eine harte Selbstdisziplin auferlegt hat. Doch wenn er mit seiner Tochter zusammen ist, wird aus ihm ein zärtlicher Versorger. Nun sind die beiden die letzten Überlebenden der Crew und nähern sich in völliger Isolation ihrem letzten unausweichlichen Ziel: einem schwarzen Loch und damit auch dem Ende von Zeit und Raum. filmstarts.de

      „High Life“ ist ein schmerzhafter Film, doch es lohnt sich, die Expedition ins Nichts zu begleiten. Wer ein klassisches Weltraum-Epos erleben will, der bleibt besser auf dem Boden. Claire Denis‘ Vision ist kompromisslos und radikal. Ein einzigartiges, schwarzes Juwel. filmstarts.de 4,5/5

      In „High Life“ nimmt uns die französische Arthouse-Regisseurin Claire Denis mit ins Weltall. Von Zivilisation ist da oben aber nichts zu spüren. Stattdessen gibt es eine zwischen Wahnsinn und Klaustrophobie schwankende Stimmung, die nach und nach zwischenmenschliche Abgründe freilegt, während das Publikum vergebens auf Erlösung, Hoffnung oder eine tatsächliche Handlung wartet. Oliver Armknecht 8/10

      An Bord eines Raumschiffes werden übergriffige Experimente durchgeführt, die die Überlebenden vor komplizierte Fragen stellen und dem Publikum schwer zu denken geben. Claire Denis erobert mit ihrem ungewöhnlichen Vertreter eines traditionsreichen Genres reizvolles Neuland. epdFilm ?/10

    1. moviepilot.de 6,7/10

      Helge Schneider bringt es wieder einmal, wie so oft, auf den Punkt: „Die schwierigste Zeit im Leben eines Mannes ist die Pubertät, die zweitschlimmste ist die danach.“ Frauen geht es da bestimmt nicht viel besser... wenn der Körper voller Hormone gepumpt wird, die diesen verändern, das Interesse am anderen oder gleichen Geschlecht zunimmt, kurz: die Zeit, in der sich schlicht alles verändert und eine andere Bedeutung bekommt, ist wohl diejenige, die uns alle am meisten prägt. Nachdem in diesem Jahr Gus van Sant mit „Paranoid Park“ einen männlichen Jugendlichen ins Visier nimmt, kontert „Water Lilies“ von Céline Sciamma quasi von weiblicher Seite. filmstarts.de (3,5/5)

    1. moviepilot.de 6,5/10

      Miles Kendig (Walter Matthau) ist CIA-Agent und ein alter Hase in seinem Beruf. Er versteht etwas von seinem Job und schafft es so etwa, auf dem Oktoberfest einen sowjetischen Spionagering hochgehen zu lassen. Doch anstatt ihn mit einer Beförderung zu belohnen, entlässt ihn sein cholerischer Chef endgültig aus dem Dienst. Kendig macht seinem Ärger Luft, indem er seiner Geliebten Isobel (Glenda Jackson) einen Besuch in Salzburg abstattet. Dort trifft er auf den sowjetischen Agenten Yaskov (Herbert Lom), welcher ihn dazu überredet, seine Biografie zu schreiben. Kendig willigt ein und sendet jedes Kapitel sowohl an seinen ehemaligen Chef, als auch an den KGB. Schnell werden zwei CIA-Agenten ausgesendet, um den Fahnenflüchtigen zu finden, doch mit der Cleverness Kendigs hat niemand gerechnet…filmstarts.de

    1. England, 1865: Catherine (Florence Pugh) lebt gemeinsam mit ihrem Gatten Alexander (Paul Hilton) und seinem Vater Boris (Christopher Fairbank) auf dem Land. Liebe ist in dieser Beziehung nicht im Spiel und obwohl Boris beständig darauf pocht, Catherine solle ihre ehelichen Pflichten erfüllen, hat Alexander keinerlei Interesse am Körper seiner Frau. Als ihr Mann eines Tages verreist, nutzt Catherine die Möglichkeit, dem ihr auferlegten Hausarrest zu entkommen und erkundet die Gegend. So lernt sie einen der Landarbeiter, Sebastian (Cosmo Jarvis), kennen. Nach anfänglicher Unsicherheit und trotz einer priesterlichen Warnung gibt sich Catherine schließlich ihrer Leidenschaft hin und beginnt eine Affäre mit Sebastian. Doch Alexanders Rückkehr gefährdet das neu gefundene Glück und Catherine muss eine Entscheidung filmstarts.de 4,5/5

      moviepilot.de 6,5/10

      Aus einer eingeschüchterten jungen Frau wird eine kaltblütige Mörderin: In dieser stilsicheren, modernen und überaus spannenden neuen „Lady Macbeth“ schlägt Newcomerin Florence Pugh den Zuschauer von der ersten Szene an in ihren Bann. filmstarts.de 4,5/5

      „Lady Macbeth“ nimmt die klassische russische Novelle und macht daraus einen Film, der kälter und böser kaum sein könnte. Vor allem die junge Hauptdarstellerin sorgt dafür, dass der Wandel einer unterdrückten Gattin zu einer skrupellosen Herrscherin absolut sehenswert ist. Gleichzeitig lässt sich das Drama aber auch zu allgemeinen Themen aus, gerade in Bezug auf zwischenmenschliche Machtverhältnisse. Oliver Armknecht 8/10

      William Oldroyds im viktorianischen England spielende Verfilmung von Nikolai Leskows »Lady Macbeth aus Mzensk« besticht durch formale Virtuosität. epdFilm 6/10

    1. IMDB 7.0/10 · 110

      In der DDR lässt es sich für den bekennenden Kommunisten Franz Walter (Lars Eidinger) gut leben. So kommt es für ihn wie gerufen, als er nach seiner Promotion an der Berliner Humboldt Universität ein Jobangebot beim Auslandsnachrichtendienst des Arbeiter- und Bauern-Staats erhält. Der Job bietet viele Vorzüge, also lässt er sich blenden und wird Teil des Geheimdienstes. Gemeinsam mit seiner Freundin Corina (Luise Heyer) genießt er fortan das angenehme Leben und findet in seinem Vorgesetzten Dirk (Devid Striesow) sogar einen neuen Freund und Mentor. Wo es in seiner Tätigkeit anfangs nur um reine Informationsbeschaffung geht, verlangen die Aufträge nach und nach immer mehr von Franz und er ist gezwungen, zu Mitteln zu greifen, die er nicht mehr mit seinem Gewissen vereinbaren kann. Gerade als er sich auf dem Höhepunkt seiner Karriere befindet, kommen ihm moralische Zweifel an seiner Tätigkeit und er will aussteigen. Doch im Netz aus Unterdrückung, Erpressung und Befragung ist er Opfer und Täter zugleich und es gibt für ihn kein Entkommen... filmstarts.de

      Ein dunkles Kapitel deutscher Geschichte, beklemmend und hochspannend inszeniert als Mischung aus Politdrama und Psychothriller – ganz weit weg von jedem Lehrstückkino. Als Verkörperungen des Kampfes Mensch vs. unmenschliches System holen Lars Eidinger und Devid Striesow das abstrakte Grauen des DDR-Überwachungsapparates so nah heran, dass es weh tut. filmstarts.de 4,5/5

      Angelehnt an eine wahre Geschichte erzählt „Nahschuss“, wie ein Mann für den DDR-Geheimdienst arbeitet und erst zu spät erkennt, worauf er sich eingelassen hat. Spannend ist dabei, wie die widersprüchliche Figur gleichzeitig Täter und Opfer ist und für seine anfängliche Naivität einen hohen Preis zu bezahlen hat. Oliver Armknecht 7/10

  3. Nov 2021
    1. Professional musicians, concert pianists get to know this instrument deeply, intimately. And through it, they're able to create with sound in a way that just dazzles us, and challenges us, and deepens us. But if you were to look into the mind of a concert pianist, and you used all the modern ways of imaging it, an interesting thing that you would see 00:11:27 is how much of their brain is actually dedicated to this instrument. The ability to coordinate ten fingers. The ability to work the pedal. The feeling of the sound. The understanding of music theory. All these things are represented as different patterns and structures in the brain. And now that you have that thought in your mind, recognize that this beautiful pattern and structure of thought in the brain 00:11:52 was not possible even just a couple hundred years ago. Because the piano was not invented until the year 1700. This beautiful pattern of thought in the brain didn't exist 5,000 years ago. And in this way, the skill of the piano, the relationship to the piano, the beauty that comes from it was not a thinkable thought until very, very recently in human history. 00:12:17 And the invention of the piano itself was not an independent thought. It required a depth of mechanical engineering. It required the history of stringed instruments. It required so many patterns and structures of thought that led to the possibility of its invention and then the possibility of the mastery of its play. And it leads me to a concept I'd like to share with you guys, which I call "The Palette of Being." 00:12:44 Because all of us are born into this life having available to us the experiences of humanity that has come so far. We typically are only able to paint with the patterns of thoughts and the ways of being that existed before. So if the piano and the way of playing it is a way of being, this is a way of being that didn't exist for people 5,000 years ago. 00:13:10 It was a color in the Palette of Being that you couldn't paint with. Nowadays if you are born, you can actually learn the skill; you can learn to be a computer scientist, another color that was not available just a couple hundred years ago. And our lives are really beautiful for the following reason. We're born into this life. We have the ability to go make this unique painting with the colors of being that are around us at the point of our birth. 00:13:36 But in the process of life, we also have the unique opportunity to create a new color. And that might come from the invention of a new thing. A self-driving car. A piano. A computer. It might come from the way that you express yourself as a human being. It might come from a piece of artwork that you create. Each one of these ways of being, these things that we put out into the world 00:14:01 through the creative process of mixing together all the other things that existed at the point that we were born, allow us to expand the Palette of Being for all of society after us. And this leads me to a very simple way to go frame everything that we've talked about today. Because I think a lot of us understand that we exist in this kind of the marvelous universe, 00:14:30 but we think about this universe as we're this tiny, unimportant thing, there's this massive physical universe, and inside of it, there's the biosphere, and inside of that, that's society, and inside of us, we're just one person out of seven billion people, and how can we matter? And we think about this as like a container relationship, where all the goodness comes from the outside to the inside, and there's nothing really special about us. 00:14:56 But the Palette of Being says the opposite. It says that the way that we are in our lives, the way that we affect our friends and our family, begin to change the way that they are able to paint in the future, begins to change the way that communities then affect society, the way that society could then affect its relationship to the biosphere, and the way that the biosphere could then affect the physical planet 00:15:21 and the universe itself. And if it's a possible thing for cyanobacteria to completely transform the physical environment of our planet, it is absolutely a possible thing for us to do the same thing. And it leads to a really important question for the way that we're going to do that, the manner in which we're going to do that. Because we've been given this amazing gift of consciousness.

      The Palette of Being is a very useful idea that is related to Cumulative Cultural Evolution (CCE) and autopoiesis. From CCE, humans are able to pass on new ideas from one generation to the next, made possible by the tool of inscribed language.

      Peter Nonacs group at UCLA as well as Stuart West at Oxford research Major Evolutionary Transitions (MET) West elucidates that modern hominids integrate the remnants of four major stages of MET that have occurred over deep time. Amanda Robins, a researcher in Nonacs group posits the idea that our species of modern hominids are undergoing a Major Systems Transition (MST), due specifically to our development of inscribed language.

      CCE emerges new technologies that shape our human environments in time frames far faster than biological evolutionary timeframes. New human experiences are created which have never been exposed to human brains before, which feedback to affect our biological evolution as well in the process of gene-culture coevolution (GCC), also known as Dual Inheritance theory. In this way, CCE and GCC are entangled. "Gene–culture coevolution is the application of niche-construction reasoning to the human species, recognizing that both genes and culture are subject to similar dynamics, and human society is a cultural construction that provides the environment for fitness-enhancing genetic changes in individuals. The resulting social system is a complex dynamic nonlinear system. " (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3048999/)

      This metaphor of experiences constituting different colors on a Palette of Being is a powerful one that can contextualize human experiences from a deep time framework. One could argue that language usage automatically forces us into an anthropomorphic lens, for sophisticated language usage at the level of humans appears to be unique amongst our species. Within that constraint, the Palette of Being still provides us with a less myopic, less immediate and arguably less anthropomorphic view of human experience. It is philosophically problematic, however, in the sense that we can speculate about nonhuman modalities of being but never truly experience them. Philosopher Thomas Nagel wrote his classic paper "What it's like to be a bat" to illustrate this problem of experiencing the other. (https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/cross_fac/iatl/study/ugmodules/humananimalstudies/lectures/32/nagel_bat.pdf)

      We can also leverage the Palette of Being in education. Deep Humanity (DH) BEing Journeys are a new kind of experiential, participatory contemplative practice and teaching tool designed to deepen our appreciation of what it is to be human. The polycrisis of the Anthropocene, especially the self-induced climate crisis and the Covid-19 pandemic have precipitated the erosion of stable social norms and reference frames, inducing another crisis, a meaning crisis. In this context, a re-education of embodied philosophy is seen as urgent to make sense of a radically shifting human reality.

      Different human experiences presented as different colors of the Palette of Being situate our crisis in a larger context. One important Deep Humanity BEing journey that can help contextualize and make sense of our experiences is language. Once upon a time, language did not exist. As it gradually emerged, this color came to be added to our Palette of Being, and shaped the normative experiences of humanity in profound ways. It is the case that such profound shifts, lost over deep time come to be taken for granted by modern conspecifics. When such particular colors of the Palette of Being are not situated in deep time, and crisis ensues, that loss of contextualizing and situatedness can be quite disruptive, de-centering, confusing and alienating.

      Being aware of the colors in the Palette can help us shed light on the amazing aspects that culture has invisibly transmitted to us, helping us not take them for granted, and re-establish a sense of awe about our lives as human beings.

    1. I will use Drexel’s treatise asrepresentative of the basic principles of note taking that were widely sharedin sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe across national and religiousdivides.

      Religious and national divides were likely very important here as authority from above would have been even more important than in modern time. Related to this is the change in mnemonic traditions due to religious and political mores around the time of Peter Ramus.

  4. Oct 2021
  5. Jul 2021
    1. The historian Peter Turchin coined the phrase elite overproduction to describe this phenomenon. He found that a constant source of instability and violence in previous eras of history, such as the late Roman empire and the French Wars of Religion, was the frustration of social elites for whom there were not enough jobs. Turchin expects this country to undergo a similar breakdown in the coming decade.
    1. and bullet journal for more modern take on commonplace books

      Bullet Journals certainly are informed by the commonplace tradition, but are an incredibly specialized version of lists for productivity.

      Perhaps there's more influence by Peter Ramus' outlining tradition here as well?

      I've seen a student's written version of the idea of a Bullet Journal technique which came out of a study habits manual in the 1990's. It didn't quite have the simplicity of the modern BuJo idea or the annotations, but in substance it was the same idea. I'll have to dig up a reference for this.

  6. Jun 2021
    1. Seth Long takes a closer look at the number of memory treatises from 1550-1650 to come up with a more concrete reason for the disappearance of mnemonic imagery (and the method of loci) in English rhetoric and pedagogic traditions. Some writers have attributed it to the rise of more writing and publishing. Long extends Frances Yates' idea of its decline to the rise of Ramism by presenting some general data about the number and quality of memory treatises published during the time period in question. Comparison of this data with European continental publications helps to draw some more concrete conclusions.

      In particular, he highlights an example of a Ramist sympathizer re-writing a previous treatise and specifically removing the rhetorical imagery from the piece.

    2. in the early1600s, the encyclopedist Johann Heinrich Alsted, a Calvinist, published treatises on both Ramus and Giordano Bruno, whosemnemonic system utilized zodiac imagery. To my knowledge, there is no English equivalent of a scholar who found value inboth Ramus and Bruno.

      It would be interesting to note other authors who found value in both Ramus and Bruno.

  7. May 2021
    1. With some continued clever searching today along with some help from an expert in Elizabethan English, I've found an online version of Robert Copland's (poor) translation from the French, some notes, and a few resources for assisting in reading it for those who need the help.

      The text:

      This is a free text transcription and will be easier to read than the original black-letter Elizabethan English version.

      For those without the background in Elizabethan English, here are a few tips/hints:

      For the more obscure/non-obvious words:

      Finally, keep in mind that the letter "y" can often be a printer's substitution for the English thorn character) Þ, so you'll often see the abbreviations for "the" and as an abbreviation for "that".

      Copland's original English, first printing of Ravenna can be accessed electronically through a paid Proquest account at most universities. It is listed as STC 24112 if you have access to a firewall-free site that lets you look at books on Early English Books Online (EEBO). A photocopy can be obtained through EEBO reprints on Amazon. Unless you've got some reasonable experience with Elizabethan black-latter typography, expect this version to be hard to read. It isn't annotated or modernized.

      @ehcolston I'm curious to hear what the Wilson/Pena text looks like. I'm guessing it's not scholarly. I think Wilson is a recent college grad and is/was a publishing intern at a company in the LA Area. I'm not sure of Pena's background. I suspect it may be a version of the transcribed text I've linked with a modest updating of the middle English which they've self-published on Amazon.

      Of course, given the multiple translations here, if anyone is aware of a more solid translation of the original Latin text into English, do let us know. The careful observer will notice that the Latin version is the longest, the French quite a bit shorter, and the English (Copland) incredibly short, so there appears to be some untranslated material in there somewhere.

    2. I haven't searched all the versions of Peter of Ravenna's name (yet) in all locations, but I recall hearing of an Italian version as well (and it's likely that there was one given its popularity).

      A bit of digging around this morning has uncovered a digital copy of a French translation in the Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de santé (Paris).:

      Given the date and the scant 16 pages, this is likely to be the edition which was the source of Robert Copland's English translation. As the edition doesn't appear to have an author, it's possible that this was the reason that Copland's translation didn't list one either.

      The Latin -> French -> middle English -> modern English route seems an awfully muddy way to go, but without anything else, it may have to suffice for some of us for the moment.

    1. I've found several digital copies in Latin:

      I've come across a recent text The Memory Arts in Renaissance England: A Critical Anthology edited by William E. Engel, Rory Loughnane, and Grant Williams (Cambridge University Press, 2016). (Google books should let you preview most of it, if it helps.) It contains an extended excerpt of about 5 pages of The Phoenix from the opening three chapters of Robert Copland's translation, which they consider weak. They also include a synopsis of the other 9 chapters. Copland apparently didn't acknowledge Ravenna as the original author, not did he supply the name of the French text he purports to translate.

      I've got feelers out to a few classicists to see if anyone has a personal translation from the Latin that they're willing to share.

      As for the size of the text, I know what you mean. I've recently acquired a 1799 edition of Richard Grey's Memoria Technica which is both smaller and denser than I had expected.

      This also reminds me that I've been wanting to re-publish copies of some of the public domain classical memory texts (and/or translations) in modern typesetting/binding as a series. If anyone wants to lend a hand with creating/editing such a thing let me know.

  8. Apr 2021
    1. Peter Littlejohns, professor (p.littlejohns@nice.nhs.uk)a,  Jeremy C Wyatt, professorb,  Linda Garvican, senior research fellow

      The research was conducted by well trusted candidates, such as Peter Littlejohns who is a professor in public health. The article does not indicate if it was peer-reviewed but there were couple of responses to the article by people living in the areas that are included on the article.

  9. Feb 2021
  10. Oct 2020
    1. Reporting on a study at Queensborough Community College, also in the CUNY system, Sheila Beck notes that the library’s reserve textbook collection is “heavily used,” however, staffing and other concerns have prompted librarians to consider “less labor intensive and less costly alternatives.“ Beyond textbook reserves, academic librarians can help students to locate required course readings in other ways: older editions of their required textbook, pre- or post-prints of articles in institutional repositories, articles or other texts in databases subscribed to by the library, or readings that may be in the public domain or otherwise available on the open web.

      The basic economics of this system would indicate (especially as classes become larger and larger) that more careful consideration of choice, economics, accessibility, availability, etc. on a larger institutional level creates larger marginal gains for those in the class. If a staff librarian, teacher, or someone else within the system does the leg-work up front and does it well, then the dozens or even hundreds of students in the course don't need to spend (read: waste) their own time re-inventing the proverbial textbook wheel once they're in the class.

      Portions of the situation here make me wonder if we might pull a page from Dr. Peter Pronovost's playbook in the health care space and create a simple checklist of what to do when planning for textbooks and readings. Checklists that include things like:

      • will the texts actually be used?
      • will they be primary to the subject or are they supplementary?
      • What are their prices?
      • Are alternate materials available?
      • Are older editions available?
      • are public domain or open web versions available?
      • are there copies in the library? reserves? pirated versions? pre/post prints?
      • etc.

      Once such a checklist is available, institutions should require that it be available along with syllabi and other course listings.

      cross references:

    1. A second caution relates to elaborative encoding. The mnemonic techniques are, as you have likely realized, an example of elaborative encoding in action, connecting the things we want to memorize (say, our shopping list) to something which already has meaning for us (say, our memory palace). By contrast, when an expert learns new information in their field, they don’t make up artificial connections to their memory palace. Instead, they find meaningful connections to what they already know.

      This was essentially the logical memory method espoused by Peter Ramus in the mid-1500's. He's a major source of the reason we don't use a broader number of methods within the art of memory in modern society. We need to remedy this error. I feel like the authors are woefully unaware of a lot of history and psychology here.

    1. memory-making was regarded as active; it was even a craft with techniquesand tools, all designed tomakean ethical, useful product.

      Perhaps it was this craft and the idea of making an ethical product that forced Peter Ramus and others to suspend the arts and crafts of memory since many early practitioners encouraged violent, sexual, and other absurd images as a means of maintaining them. This certainly may not have sat well with Puritans using these mnemotechniques to memorize portions of the Bible and their catechisms.

    1. monk’s tomb in 1886

      Apocalypse of Peter was found in the same tomb and manuscript as the Gospel of Peter.

  11. Sep 2020
  12. Aug 2020
    1. The most quoted and probably most fundamental essay by Peter Haff about the technosphere. The argumentation is clearly opposed to an argumentation that sees technology as something controllable by humans. It's about the whole world, or sphere of artifacts, and people, in so far as they are part of that sphere. In essence, Haff argues by starting from the different layers of a system (stratum 1, 2, and 3). From a certain layer (stratum 2) the components of the lower layer (stratum 1) are inaccessible and the components of the higher layer (stratum 3) are not to be influenced. Only components on the same layer can be influenced. - The sphere belongs to the prerequisites of its parts: Without biosphere no organisms, without semi-sphere no signs, without technosphere no techniques (Haff does not speak of semi-sphere here, but see Towards a semiotics of the technosphere). The technosphere depends on energy and is threatened by entropy. It needs to recycle the waste it produces in order to maintain its functions.

      After the first reading, much of this argument reminds me of conservative authors like Arnold Gehlen, Martin Heidegger (Gestell), and perhaps Ernst Jünger (who, as far as I know, has a similar understanding of the relationship of the worker to technology). I suspect that an actor-network theoretical argument would criticize the concept of closed spheres—although these spheres are not super-systems.


      Der am meisten zitierte und wohl grundlegende Aufsatz von Peter Haff über die Technosphäre. Die Argumentation ist klar einer Argumentation entgegengesetzt, die Technik als etwas von Menschen Kontrollierbares ansieht. Es geht um die gesamte Welt oder Sphäre der Artefakte und die Menschen, insofern sie Teil dieser Sphäre sind. Im Kern argumentiert Haff, indem er von den verschiedenen Schichten eines Systems ausgeht (Stratum 1, 2 und 3). Von einer bestimmten Schicht aus (Stratum 2) sind die Komponenten der niedrigeren Schicht (Stratum 1) unzugänglich und die Komponenten der höheren Schicht (Stratum 3) nicht zu beeinflussen. Zu beeinflussen sind nur Komponenten auf derselben Ebene. - Die Sphäre gehört zu den Voraussetzungen ihrer Teile: Ohne Biosphäre keine Organismen, ohne Semiosphäre keine Zeichen, ohne Technosphäre keine Techniken (wobei Haff hier nicht von Semiosphäre spricht, siehe aber Towards a semiotics of the technosphere). Die Technosphäre ist auf Energie angewiesen und wird von Entropie bedroht. Sie muss den waste den sie erzeugt, selbst recyceln, um ihre Funktionen weiter aufrechterhalten zu können.

      Nach der ersten Lektüre erinnert mich vieles in dieser Argumentation an konservative Autoren wie Arnold Gehlen, Martin Heidegger (Gestell) und vielleicht auch Ernst Jünger (der, so weit ich weiss, das Verhältnis des Arbeiters zur Technik ähnlich verstanden hat). Ich vermute, dass eine Actor-Network-theoretische Argumentation das Konzept der geschlossenen Sphären kritisieren würde—wobei diese Sphären aber keine Über-Systeme sind.

  13. Jun 2020
    1. copy editing

      I'd like to strike a blow for line editing. From Peter Ginna's brilliant What Editors Do:

      A line edit dials down to the paragraph/sentence/word level. As we said, it’s usually a much more expensive job than a developmental edit. A line editor will go through the pages of your book with a fine-toothed comb, looking for dialogue that feels awkward, sentences that don’t quite work, repetition, and more. Obviously this happens when the bulk of the work in terms of plot, character, beginnings, middles, and ends is done. It’s not that a line edit can’t address the bigger picture. But in most publishing houses an editor simply won’t do a line edit until the bigger issues are addressed, so as not to have to do the same work twice. It’s smart to stick with that order in self-publishing too. Line edits may or may not come with an editorial letter. But be sure that the fee includes time for you to meet in person or talk on the phone once you’ve had a chance to digest the edits. Often the same person could do both a developmental edit and line edit, if that’s what you decide to pay for, but you will also need a copyeditor. Copyeditors are the grammarians, the fact-checkers, the formatting gurus, the identifiers of repetitive words and phrases. They are the ones who make a book as smooth as a fresh jar of Skippy. The one instance where you might not need a separate copyeditor is if you hire someone to do a line edit who does a copyedit simultaneously. Some people have both skills and can pull this off, though it’s rare.

  14. May 2020
    1. In evolutionary terms, certainly, because the individuals that show these traits have a higher chance of survival in the long term.

      Not surprisingly, nature is a great teacher. Not until the 1950s and Johnny von Neumann did game theory get developed, but it was found that tit for tat with forgiveness is the optimal model. In other words, altruism or as Henry Ford called it, enlightened self-interest (https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Game_theory)

  15. Feb 2020
    1. The coat is a use value that satisfies a particular want

      Marx: "Yesterday I pawned a coat dating back to my Liverpool days in order to buy writing paper" (Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Collected Works, vol. 38 [1852-55]: 221).

      On the significance of Marx's coat, see Peter Stallybrass, “Marx’s Coat,” in Border Fetishisms: Material Objects in Unstable Spaces, ed. Patricia Spyer (New York: Routledge, 1998): 183–207. [PDF].

  16. Jan 2019
  17. Dec 2018
    1. That said, for a thoughtful survey of how the commons, cultural and otherwise, might thrive inside of, or along with, with current conditions I recommend Peter Barnes’s book, Capitalism 3.0: A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons. One of Barnes’s points is that our debates about the future often imagine only two actors: the government and private business. Barnes suggests a third set, common property trusts (as, for example, the kind of land trusts devised by the Nature Conservancy). There is much to say about common property trusts but for now the point is simply that we already have a mix of cultural modes and should continue to have them going forward with, I hope, the commons recognized and strengthened.

      One of the areas I find challenging in addressing Creative Commons culture is how Creative Commons relates to capitalistic culture (or rejects it). Creative Commons can be compatible with open market, but it can also challenge some of the fundamental tenants of it. Throughout the units, as I tried to imagine applications of Creative Commons, or making licensing decisions as a creative and academic, I found that I had questions about artists and how they can earn a living in this model, and how this model supported and challenged my role as a librarian in academe.

  18. Nov 2018
    1. But now it was all for the best: a law of nature, a chance for the monopolists to do good for the universe. The cheerer-in-chief for the monopoly form is Peter Thiel, author of Competition Is for Losers. Labeling the competitive economy a “relic of history” and a “trap,” he proclaimed that “only one thing can allow a business to transcend the daily brute struggle for survival: monopoly profits.”

      Sounds like a guy who is winning all of the spoils.

  19. Jul 2017
  20. Jun 2017
  21. May 2017
    1. rising

      I agree with the points made by Ssamo1 The Pope is trying hard to tell people to stick to the traditional Catholic practices and shun the reformatory ideas of Martin Luther. He is being religiously appealing for people of that time because he knew that those who have believed in Roman Catholicism and have been loyal to the Pope, Peter and the Church will listen to him and consider Martin Luther and his reformation as prime evil. These words work powerfully from religious as well as from the political perspective.

  22. Jan 2017
  23. Dec 2016
    1. by a man whom I was [partially] acquainted with

      Who advised Peter to speak with William Still?

    2. Peter Freedman

      What purpose does this letter serve? Why would William write to his brother Peter narrating how they met?

  24. Nov 2016