153 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2024
    1. Guter Überblick über das Lobbying-Netzwerk der deutschen Gasindustrie. Der Verbraucht an Erdgas hat sich in Deutschland seit 1990 verdoppelt, obwohl Erdgas insgesamt etwa so viel Emissionen verursacht wie Kohle. Die LNG-Infrastruktur, die die deutsche Bundesregierung gerade aufbaut, ist auf um ein Drittel höhere Kapazitäten angelegt, als aus Russland importiert wurden. https://taz.de/Fossile-Politik/!5983492/

    1. Die nördlichen Wälder Kanadas wurden seit 1976 durch Holzfällen erheblich geschädigt, wie eine neue Studie über zwei Provinzen zeigt. Nicht nur ging der Waldbestand erheblich zurück, die übrig gebliebenen Gebiete sind durch Fragmentierung für den Klimaschutz weniger relevant als die ursprünglichen Wälder. Der Nachhaltigkeitsbegriff der kanadischen Regierung sei vor allem an den Bedürfnissen der Holzindustrie orientiert, stellt der Hauptautor der Studie fest. Experten bezeichnen die Ergebnisse der auch als methodisch wichtig angesehenen Studie als schockierend. https://www.nytimes.com/2024/01/04/world/canada/canada-boreal-forest-logging.html

      Studie: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-445X/13/1/6

  2. Dec 2023
    1. In Smalltalk, we say that each object decides for itself how it responds to a message. This is called polymorphism. The same message selector may be sent to objects of different Classes. The shape (morph) of the computation is different depending on the specific class of the many (poly) possible classes of the object receiving the message.

      My math background made me realize that each object could have several algebras associated with it, and there could be families of these, and that these would be very very useful. The term "polymorphism" was imposed much later (I think by Peter Wegner) and it isn't quite valid, since it really comes from the nomenclature of functions, and I wanted quite a bit more than functions. I made up a term "genericity" for dealing with generic behaviors in a quasi-algebraic form.

      —Alan Kay Clarification of "object-oriented", email reply to Stefan Ram

  3. Nov 2023
    1. 25Hypertext Avant La LettrePeter Krapp

      Krapp, Peter. “Hypertext Avant La Lettre.” In New Media, Old Media: A History and Theory Reader, edited by Wendy Hui Kyong Chun and Thomas W. Keenan, 1st ed., 432–51. New York: Routledge, 2006.

      Samizdat copy available at: https://www.krapp.org/pdf/hypertextavant.pdf.

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    1. Sneed experimental plots treated with fire, grazing and fire+grazing as restoration methods shows significantly higher hyphal colonization at the plots grazed by cattle (38.14±4.87%) compared to control plots (23.44±0.94%) and plots treated with fire+grazing combined (27.78±2.01%).

      Adding cattle increased the prevalence of fungal hypha (long branching filaments of fungi indicative of healthy fungi growth).

    2. Clinton and Edith Sneed Environmental Research Area

      Full name of the ERA (Environmental Research Area) of the Sneed Prairie where Austin College, led by Dr. Peter Schulze, conduct their annual research.

  4. Oct 2023
    1. There was former Ohio congressman Anthony Gonzalez (R) — a former professional football player — who deemed the hostility he faced after opposing Trump too much of a risk for his family. Former Wyoming representative Liz Cheney (R) described similar fears from other legislators, as did former Michigan representative Peter Meijer (R). That these three are all former legislators is not a coincidence: They resigned or were beaten in primaries largely because they saw how the party had turned against them. See also: Romney, Mitt.

      The threat of physical violence is silencing those in power even on the right. We're already at war except for the bullets.

    1. They then spent a couple of pages on the history of elementary education, followed by a discussion of the stages of instruction, beginning with "reading readiness" and continuing through "sight words" and "context clues", to mature skills that allow the reader to compare the views of different writers.

      The broad idea of "reading readiness" stemmed from Jean Piaget's work, much of which was debunked by Peter Bryant during the 1970s. Yet we're still apparently discussing it and attempting to figure out how to do all this better: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/22/us/reading-teaching-curriculum-phonics.html

      They didn't tackle the lowest level very thoroughly, but I was a bit surprised that with their discussion of speed reading they didn't give at least a passing mention to phonics which had a big rise in the 1960s before declining in the 70s and 80s only to see another big uptick in the 90s.

    1. Ein Panel von Experten spricht sich in einem Bericht nachdrücklich für ein Moratorium für Geo-Engineering-Maßnahmen aus, die das Klima manipulieren sollen, Die vom früheren WTO-Chef Pascal Lamy geleitetete Climate Overshoot Commission stellt fest, dass die Wirkungen und Risiken solcher Maßnahmen bei weitem nicht ausreichend erforscht sind. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/sep/14/experts-call-for-global-moratorium-on-efforts-to-geoengineer-climate

      Report der Climate overshoot Commission: https://www.overshootcommission.org/report

  5. Sep 2023
  6. Aug 2023
    1. The phrase "Rule 34" was coined from an August 13, 2003 webcomic captioned, "Rule #34 There is porn of it. No exceptions." The comic was drawn by TangoStari (Peter Morley-Souter) to depict his shock at seeing Calvin and Hobbes parody porn.[1][2]
  7. Jul 2023
    1. Peter Kalmus appelliert im Guardian an Präsident Biden, endlich den Klimanotstand zu erklären und konsequent gegen die globale Erhitzung vorzugehen. Biden sei der letzte US-Präsident, der die Welt noch auf einen 1,5 Grad-Pfad bringen könne. Stattdessen nehme er die Krise nicht ernst genug, und fördere den Ausbau fossiler Energien. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/jul/27/joe-biden-climate-emergency-peter-kalmus

    1. Eine neue Studie hält es für möglich, dass das Strömungssystem im Nordatlantik seinen Zustand schon in wenigen Jahren so verändert, dass der Golfstrom zusammenbricht. Die Modellierung basiert auf Messungen der Oberflächentemperatur des Nordatlantik seit 1850. Sie legt nahe, dass zwischen 2025 und 2095 ein Kipppunkt erreicht wird, wenn weiter Treibhausgase in die Atmosphäre gepumpt werden. An der Aussagekraft der Daten bestehen aber noch Zweifel. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/07/25/climate/atlantic-ocean-tipping-point.html

  8. Jun 2023
  9. May 2023
  10. Apr 2023
    1. Roy Peter Clark, writing scholar and coach at The Poynter Institute, says, “Reports give readers information. Stories give readers experience.” I would add: An article is generic; a story is unique.

      There's something interesting lurking here on note taking practice as well.

      Generic notes for learning may rephrase or summarize an idea int one's own words and are equivalent to basic information or articles as framed by Clark/Keiger. But in building towards something, that goes beyond the basic, one should strive in their notes to elicit experience and generate insight; take the facts and analyze them, create something new, interesting, and unique.

    2. Roy Peter Clark, writing scholar and coach at The Poynter Institute, says, “Reports give readers information. Stories give readers experience.” I would add: An article is generic; a story is unique.
    1. Recommended Source

      Under the "More on Philosophies of Copyright" section, I recommended adding the scholarly article by Chinese scholar Peter K. Yu that explains how Chinese philosophy of Yin-Yang can address the contradictions in effecting or eliminating intellectual property laws. One of the contradictions is in intellectual property laws protecting individual rights while challenging sustainability efforts for future generations (as climate change destroys more natural resources.

      Yu, Peter K., Intellectual Property, Asian Philosophy and the Yin-Yang School (November 19, 2015). WIPO Journal, Vol. 7, pp. 1-15, 2015, Texas A&M University School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 16-70, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2693420

      Below is a short excerpt from the article that details Chinese philosophical thought on IP and sustainability:

      "Another area of intellectual property law and policy that has made intergenerational equity questions salient concerns the debates involving intellectual property and sustainable development. Although this mode of development did not garner major international attention until after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Yin-Yang school of philosophy—which “offers a normative model with balance, harmony, and sustainability as ideals”—provides important insight into sustainable development."

  11. Mar 2023
    1. Often fragments on the same topic were clipped together; butthere were also a large number lying loose in the box. Someyears ago Peter Geach made an arrangement of this material,keeping together what were in single bundles, and otherwisefitting the pieces as well as he could according to subject matter.This arrangement we have retained with a very few alterations

      This brings up the question of how Ludwig Wittgenstein arranged his own zettelkasten...


      Peter Geach made an arrangement of Wittgenstein's zettels which was broadly kept in the edited and published version Zettel (1967). Apparently fragments on the same topic were clipped together indicating that Wittgenstein's method was most likely by topical headings. However there were also a large number of slips "lying loose in the box." Perhaps these were notes which he had yet to file or which some intervening archivist may have re-arranged?

      In any case, Geach otherwise arranged all the materials as best as he could according to subject matter. As a result the printed book version isn't necessarily the arrangement that Wittgenstein would have made, but the editors of the book felt that at least Geach's arrangement made it an "instructive and readable compilation".

      This source doesn't indicate the use of alphabetical dividers or other tabbed divisions.

    1. Thiel turns to Girard, as ‘the new science of humanity must drive the idea of imitation, mimesis, much further than it has in the past’, where ‘it is not overly reductionist to describe human brains as gigantic imitation machines’
    2. Peter Thiel, saw in Facebook a capitalist enterprise whose engine of representation and then imitation – mimesis – was theorised by his own philosophical master René Girard as the hidden truth of civilisation.
  12. Feb 2023
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qGRPOzMWnA

      Watched the first 46:39 on 2023-02-02. His personal communication style is a bit off-putting, but remedied slightly by watching at 1.25 or 1.5x speed. He's broadly covering pieces directly from his text which seems much more compact and elegant. Questions from the viewers in real time is a bit muddy with respect to understanding what they're saying.

      I gave up on the video due to streaming issues.

  13. Jan 2023
    1. It was Eric Williams (Capitalism and Slavery) who first developed the idea thatEuropean slave plantations in the New World were, in effect, the first factories; theidea of a “pre-racial” North Atlantic proletariat, in which these same techniques ofmechanization, surveillance, and discipline were applied to workers on ships, waselaborated by Peter Linebaugh and Marcus Rediker (The Many-Headed Hydra).

      What sort of influence did these sorts of philosophy have on educational practices of their day and how do they reflect on our current educational milieu?

    1. 12 “In summer 2010, seven cardboard boxes with lexicographical slips compiled by Dr. GertrudBauer were presented by Professor Peter Nagel (Bonn) to the DDGLC office, which had beenhanded over to him in the early 1990s by the late Professor Alexander Böhlig. The Gertrud-und-Alexander-Böhlig Stiftung funded the scanning and slotting of the slips into a database accord-ing to the hierarchical structure of the original compilation,” http://research.uni-leip-zig.de/ddglc/bauer/BauerIndex.pdf

      repetition of what appears on their primary web page in early 2023. the .pdf document doesn't appear to exist anymore (it redirects to https://www.geschkult.fu-berlin.de/en/e/ddglc/index.html

    1. Mutual Aid grew from a series of essays written in response to Thomas Henry Huxley, a well-known Social Darwinist, and summarized the Russian understanding of the day, which was that while competition was undoubtedly one factor driving both natural and social evolution, the role of cooperation was ultimately decisive.
    2. An alternative school of Darwinism emerged in Russia emphasizing cooperation, not competition, as the driver of evolutionary change. In 1902 this approach found a voice in a popular book, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, by naturalist and revolutionary anarchist pamphleteer Peter Kropotkin.

      Was this referenced in the Selfish Gene?

      Things working at the level of the gene vs. species...

    1. I have a bit of a soft spot for Niklas Luhmann ever since David Seidl introduced me to his ideas. I think it was at an EGOS conference in the early 2000s.

      https://petersmith.org/blog/2022/12/10/zettelkasten/

      Peter Smith was introduced to Niklas Luhmann at an European Group for Organizational Studies (EGOS) Conference in the early 2000s, ostensibly a business related group.


      I came across this via an IndieWeb reference and webmention.

  14. Dec 2022
    1. My freely downloadable Beginning Mathematical Logic is a Study Guide, suggesting introductory readings beginning at sub-Masters level. Take a look at the main introductory suggestions on First-Order Logic, Computability, Set Theory as useful preparation. Tackling mid-level books will help develop your appreciation of mathematical approaches to logic.

      This is a reference to a great book "Beginning Mathematical Logic: A Study Guide [18 Feb 2022]" by Peter Smith on "Teach Yourself Logic A Study Guide (and other Book Notes)". The document itself is called "LogicStudyGuide.pdf".

      It focuses on mathematical logic and can be a gateway into understanding Gödel's incompleteness theorems.

      I found this some time ago when looking for a way to grasp the difference between first-order and second-order logics. I recall enjoying his style of writing and his commentary on the books he refers to. Both recollections still remain true after rereading some of it.

      It both serves as an intro to and recommended reading list for the following: - classical logics - first- & second-order - modal logics - model theory<br /> - non-classical logics - intuitionistic - relevant - free - plural - arithmetic, computability, and incompleteness - set theory (naïve and less naïve) - proof theory - algebras for logic - Boolean - Heyting/pseudo-Boolean - higher-order logics - type theory - homotopy type theory

  15. Nov 2022
    1. Whenever I read about the various ideas, I feel like I do not necessarily belong. Thinking about my practice, I never quite feel that it is deliberate enough.

      https://readwriterespond.com/2022/11/commonplace-book-a-verb-or-a-noun/

      Sometimes the root question is "what to I want to do this for?" Having an underlying reason can be hugely motivating.

      Are you collecting examples of things for students? (seeing examples can be incredibly powerful, especially for defining spaces) for yourself? Are you using them for exploring a particular space? To clarify your thinking/thought process? To think more critically? To write an article, blog, or book? To make videos or other content?

      Your own website is a version of many of these things in itself. You read, you collect, you write, you interlink ideas and expand on them. You're doing it much more naturally than you think.


      I find that having an idea of the broader space, what various practices look like, and use cases for them provides me a lot more flexibility for what may work or not work for my particular use case. I can then pick and choose for what suits me best, knowing that I don't have to spend as much time and effort experimenting to invent a system from scratch but can evolve something pre-existing to suit my current needs best.

      It's like learning to cook. There are thousands of methods (not even counting cuisine specific portions) for cooking a variety of meals. Knowing what these are and their outcomes can be incredibly helpful for creatively coming up with new meals. By analogy students are often only learning to heat water to boil an egg, but with some additional techniques they can bake complicated French pâtissier. Often if you know a handful of cooking methods you can go much further and farther using combinations of techniques and ingredients.

      What I'm looking for in the reading, note taking, and creation space is a baseline version of Peter Hertzmann's 50 Ways to Cook a Carrot combined with Michael Ruhlman's Ratio: The Simple Codes Behind the Craft of Everyday Cooking. Generally cooking is seen as an overly complex and difficult topic, something that is emphasized on most aspirational cooking shows. But cooking schools break the material down into small pieces which makes the processes much easier and more broadly applicable. Once you've got these building blocks mastered, you can be much more creative with what you can create.

      How can we combine these small building blocks of reading and note taking practices for students in the 4th - 8th grades so that they can begin to leverage them in high school and certainly by college? Is there a way to frame them within teaching rhetoric and critical thinking to improve not only learning outcomes, but to improve lifelong learning and thinking?

    1. Originally blogs were called weblogs: a log of activity that you wrote to the web. Peter Merholz jokingly split the term into two words to make it an activity: we blog. Ev Williams started to use it as a verb and a noun: to blog. And the rest is history.
  16. Oct 2022
    1. [T.S.] Eliot stood—as he once famously said of himself—for conservatism in politics, classicism in literature, and Catholicism, or rather Anglo-Catholicism, in religion. He looked back into the past, the mediaeval past, as a confirmed laudator temporis acti and in the mediaeval past he looked back not only to John Donne among the metaphysical poets, nor only to William Shakespeare among the Elizabethan dramatists, but before them to the great Dante among Italian poets and behind Dante, though not so obviously, to St. Thomas Aquinas among the scholastic theologians. (From "T.S. Eliot's Metaphysics" by Peter Milward, Culture and Civilization 2009.)
  17. Sep 2022
    1. Elbow, P. (1999). Options for responding to student writing. In R. Straub (Ed.), Asourcebook for responding to student writing (pp. 197-202). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

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  18. Aug 2022
  19. Jul 2022
    1. During the seventeenth century, this associative view vanished and was replaced by more literallydescriptive views simply of the thing as it exists in itself.

      The associative emblematic worldview prevalent prior to the seventeenth century began to disappear within Western culture as the rise of the early modern period and the beginning of the scientific revolution began to focus on more descriptive modes of thought and representation.


      Have any researchers done specific work on this shift from emblematic to the descriptive? What examples do they show which support this shift? Any particular heavy influences?

      This section cites:<br /> William B. Ashworth, Jr. “Natural History and the Emblematic World View,” in Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution, David C. Lindberg and Robert S. Westfall, eds #books/wanttoread<br /> which could be a place to start.


      Note that this same shift from associative and emblematic to descriptive and pedantic coincides not only with the rise of the scientific revolution but also with the effects of rising information overload in a post-Gutenberg world as well as the education reforms of Ramus (late 1500s) et al. as well as the beginning of the move away from scholasticism.


      Is there any evidence to support claims that this worldview stemmed from pagan traditions and cultures and not solely the art of memory traditions from ancient Greece? Could it have been pagan traditions which held onto these and they were supplemented and reinforced by ecclesiastical forces which used the Greek traditions?


      Examples of emblematic worldview: - particular colors of flowers meant specific things (red = love, yellow = friendship, etc.) We still have these or remants - Saints had their associative animals and objects - anniversary gifts had associative meanings (paper, silver, gold, etc.) We still have remnants of these things, though most are associated with wealth (gold, silver, platinum anniversaries). When did this tradition actually start? - what were the associative meanings of rabbits, turtles, and other animals which appear frequently in manuscript marginalia? (We have the example of the bee (Latin: apes) which where frequently used this way as being associated with the idea of imitation.) - other broad categories?

    1. the definingcharacteristic of knowledge workers is that they arethemselves changed by the information theyprocess.’ So, the workers interviewed saw theirvalue to an organisation being to understand a bodyof knowledge and generate new information fromthis understanding which changed either theorganisation or its customer in a direct way.

      a more refined and nuanced definition of knowledge workers than Peter Drucker's 1973 definition.

    2. Peter Drucker, the distinguished commentator onorganisation and management, has popularised theterm “knowledge worker” to describe the role of agrowing percentage of employees in businessorganisations: “The manual worker is yesterday..,..The basic capital resource, the fundamentalinvestment, but also the cost centre for a developedeconomy is the knowledge worker who puts to work

      what he has learned in systematic education, that is, concepts, ideas and theories, rather than the man who puts to work manual skill or muscle, ” [5]. 5. Drucker, P. F. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities and Practices, Harper & Row; New York, 1973.

      Influential management consultant, educator, and author Peter Drucker helped to popularize the concept of the "knowledge worker" by way of his book Management: Tasks, Responsibilities and Practices (Harper & Row, 1973).


      Who/where is the origin of the neologism/idea of "knowledge worker"?

    1. it works on on logic essentially and shows look if you if you take this entity as existence you get into a contradiction for this and this reason 00:36:31 and it slowly demolishes all the possible foundations of our thinking not only objects but also causation itself also time itself also the self 00:36:44 itself and so on and so forth one one by one um showing that uh thinking that they are foundational they're they're they have intrinsic existence uh doesn't doesn't hold

      Nagarjuna uses his tetralema to deconstruct logical arguments of thinking, existence of self, causation, time, intrinsic existence using logical arguments.j

      For other viewpoints of Nagarjuna's Tetralemma, visit:

      Judith Ragir discusses parallels between Dogen and Nagarjuna and employs Trungpha Rinpoche's Diamond Sliver diagram https://hyp.is/go?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.judithragir.org%2F2017%2F08%2Fdogen-nagarjunas-tetralemma-6%2F&group=world Graham Priest's paper on the Catuskoti / Tetralemma technique https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fbafybeifum5ioeus3y3hl4lqdwclgxpd6in4muleocuhsk3jev2rd7j3hpu.ipfs.dweb.link%2FThe-Logic-of-the-Catuskoti-by-G.-Priest.pdf&group=world

      Professor Peter Adamson:of King's College London on his "History of Philosophy without any Gaps" podcast series https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fhistoryofphilosophy.net%2Fnagarjuna-tetralemma&group=world Here Peter interviews Nagarjuna expert, Jan Westerhoff of Oxford,in an insightful interview https://historyofphilosophy.net/nagarjuna-westerhoff

  20. Jun 2022
    1. https://www.nationalreview.com/corner/a-book-for-our-times-peter-woods-1620-skewers-1619-project/

      A miserable sniveling little piece from someone who seems to be missing a larger rhetorical point. They barely peck at any actual argument, but resort to tangential ad hominem attacks in an attempt, yet again (should we be surprised?), to quite the voice of a Black woman who's simply trying to tell a story, and far succeeding the writer at it.

      As an aside there's a lot to also be said about the presentation of this on the page as I'm viewing it. It's topped by a middle-aged white man with a paunch, ostensibly attempting to appear intelligent in front of a book shelf covered with world history texts which are ostensibly about "White" Occidental history. Further down the page all the ads scream at me with White Nationalism including t-shirts oozing with the American flag and white Christian symbolism. The amount of cruft and crap on the page seems to indicate that the NR is gasping for breath to put their ideas onto a page that's overcrowded with ads.

  21. May 2022
    1. This is the vision of OP Sapiens Star—that human’s evolution is not finished, and that the hyperthreat provides the impetus for a quantum leap into a new way of being. Through achieving a galactically significant mission—saving Earth’s ecological integrity—the Homo sapiens species “stars” within the universe. Humans go from being a menace and fighting one another to being heroic, creative, and tolerant.    

      This can be interpreted as an instantiation of the hero's journey, in the context of research that combines evolution with ecology as in the research paper: Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations (Robin et al., 2021).From this lens, cumulative cultural evolution (CCE) was first made possible through spoken language, then accelerated through written language. The authors claim that another Major System Transition (MST).is emerging, which they posit to be abiotic in nature involving Artificial Intelligence.

      Faced with a self-induced civilization-scale threat, we may ask whether a major cultural evolution may be necessary to avoid catastrophe and whether it may constitute another MST. Could a rapid higher level global understanding of the epistemological dualism of self and other which undergirds normative alienation, othering and conflict, both with others of our own species, of other species and with the planetary system itself play a major role in the transition?

  22. Apr 2022
    1. It is always about the new The frontpage of any content-driven media is often geared towards the latest happenings. But what if there are old gems hidden beyond? A new user wouldn’t be able to discover them.

      Older content may broadly be considered more valuable than newer content. The fact that it has been "tried and true" gives it enormously more value than newer and untested content.

      Newer content is primarily valuable solely because it is new. How much of it will live on to become old content without falling off of the long tail of the value distribution?

      Link this to the idea of imitation > innovation in Annie Murphy Paul's book The Extended Mind.

      Link this to the fact that NASA uses 30+ year old software and systems in their outer-space program because all the glitches and bugs have been found and it's far more reliable.


      Finding the older gems has generally been the sort of driving idea behind @peterhagen and his https://lindylearn.io/ site -- particularly his Hacker News tool.

    1. Another visual-mapping tool is Open Knowledge Maps, a service offered by a Vienna-based not-for-profit organization of the same name. It was founded in 2015 by Peter Kraker, a former scholarly-communication researcher at Graz University of Technology in Austria.

      https://openknowledgemaps.org/

      Open Knowledge maps is a visual literature search tool that is based on keywords rather than on a paper's title, author, or DOI. The service was founded in 2015 by Peter Kraker, a former scholarly communication researcher at Graz University of Technology.

    1. According to Krapp, admissions like this, along with Barthes’inclusion of facsimiles of his cards in Roland Barthes by RolandBarthes, are all part of Barthes ‘outing’ his card catalogue as ‘co-author of his texts’ (Krapp, 2006: 363). The precise wording of thisformulation – designating the card index as ‘co-author’ – and theagency it ascribes to these index cards are significant in that theysuggest a usage that extends beyond mere memory aid to formsomething that is instrumental to the very organisation of Barthes’ideas and the published representations of these ideas.
    2. Krapp argues that, despite its ‘respectablelineage’, the card index generally ‘figures only as an anonymous,furtive factor in text generation, acknowledged – all the way into thetwentieth century – merely as a memory crutch’ (361).2 A keyreason for this is due to the fact that the ‘enlightened scholar isexpected to produce innovative thought’ (361); knowledgeproduction, and any prostheses involved in it, ‘became and remaineda private matter’ (361).

      'Memory crutch' implies a physical human failing that needs assistance rather than a phrase like aide-mémoire that doesn't draw that same attention.

    3. Wittgenstein from his ‘Zettel’, a box containing over 700 textfragments (or ‘scraps’) and other loose pages (Krapp, 2006: 362).

      Ludwig Wittgenstein had a box, which he apparently called his 'Zettel' in which he kept over 700 text fragments or scraps and other loose pages.


      Double check this reference for a translation error from German as Zettel is the 'slip' and kasten is the 'box', 'crate', or 'container'.

    4. In a remarkable essay on precursors to hypertext, Peter Krapp(2006) provides a useful overview of the development of the indexcard and its use by various thinkers, including Locke, Leibniz, Hegel,and Wittgenstein, as well as by those known to Barthes and part of asimilar intellectual milieu, including Michel Leiris, Georges Perec,and Claude Lévi-Strauss (Krapp, 2006: 360-362; Sieburth, 2005).1

      Peter Krapp created a list of thinkers including Locke, Leibniz, Hegel, Wittgenstein, Barthes, Michel Leiris, Georges Perec, and Lévi-Strauss who used index cards in his essay Hypertext Avant La Lettre on the precursors of hypertext.

      see also: Krapp, P. (2006) ‘Hypertext Avant La Lettre’, in W. H. K. Chun & T. Keenan (eds), New Media, Old Theory: A History and Theory Reader. New York: Routledge: 359-373.

      Notice that Krapp was the translator of Paper Machines About Cards & Catalogs, 1548 – 1929 (MIT Press, 2011) by Marcus Krajewski. Which was writing about hypertext and index cards first? Or did they simply influence each other?

    5. Krapp, P. (2006) ‘Hypertext Avant La Lettre’, in W. H. K. Chun & T.Keenan (eds), New Media, Old Theory: A History and Theory Reader.New York: Routledge: 359-373.
    1. In this way the pressures of the multitude and diversity of authorita-tive opinion, already articulated in the previous century by Peter Abelard (1079–1142), were heightened by the development of reference books, from indexes and concordances that made originalia searchable and to the large compilations that excerpted and summarized from diverse sources.

      Prior to the flourishing of reference materials, Peter Abelard (1079-1142) had articulated the idea of "the multitude and diversity of authoritative opinion" to be found in available material. How was one to decide which authority to believe in a time before the scientific method?

      link to https://hypothes.is/a/oMSaKLb2EeyXOE_0Yh1Chw

    2. In the twelfth century Peter Comestor and Alan of Lille had “published” distinctiones, which listed alphabetically some words found in the Bible (action words, abstract words, and concrete words), along with expla-nations of their various allegorical meanings, as an aid to preachers in search of appropriate biblical passages on a theme.119

      In a precursor to a full concordance of the Bible in 1247, Peter Comestor and Alan of Lille created their distinctiones in the twelfth century. Used as an aid to preachers looking for potential sermon themes, the compilation didn't include every word from the Bible, but instead listed important words including action words, and abstract and concrete words as well as allegorical meanings of words.

  23. Jan 2022
    1. Autopoiesis is just one of several current theories of life, including the chemoton[20] of Tibor Gánti, the hypercycle of Manfred Eigen and Peter Schuster,[21] [22] [23] the (M,R) systems[24][25] of Robert Rosen, and the autocatalytic sets[26] of Stuart Kauffman, similar to an earlier proposal by Freeman Dyson.[27] All of these (including autopoiesis) found their original inspiration in Erwin Schrödinger's book What is Life?[28] but at first they appear to have little in common with one another, largely because the authors did not communicate with one another, and none of them made any reference in their principal publications to any of the other theories.
    1. moviepilot.de 6,1/10 IMDB 5,8/10 · 150

      Muskelpaket und Einzelgänger Mosk (Thomas Sarbacher) hat alles andere als diesen süßen Labradorwelpen im Kopf: Er trainiert seit Wochen hart für die anstehenden gefängnisinternen Meisterschaften im Gewichtheben. So sträubt er sich zunächst auch vehement gegen das Projekt der neuen Gefängnisdirektorin Gloria (Clelia Sarto), bei dem ausgewählte Häftlinge Welpen zu Blindenhunden ausbilden sollen. Leider hilft weder sein abweisendes Verhalten noch ein klares „Nein“, er wird gegen seinen Willen für das Programm ausgewählt und zieht kurz darauf zusammen mit fünf weiteren Teilnehmern und Knastkumpanen in einen speziellen Trakt der Vollzugsanstalt. filmstarts.de 3,5/5

      Ein Häftling findet sich gegen seinen Willen in einem Pilotprojekt wieder, bei dem er und fünf Mitgefangene Welpen zu Blindenhunden ausbilden. Unterhaltsamer Gefängnisfilm, der die Klischees des Genres umschifft. epdFilm 6/10

    1. moviepilot.de 5,8/10 IMDB 5,8/10 · 33K · Metascore: 77 Parents Guide

      In den Tiefen des Weltalls, weit entfernt von unserem Sonnensystem, leben Monte (Robert Pattinson) und seine kleine Tochter Willow (Jessie Ross) gemeinsam auf einem ramponierten Raumschiff, dessen Besatzung vor einiger Zeit noch aus vielen verurteilten Schwerverbrechern bestand, die sich mit einer gefährlichen Mission von ihren Strafen freikauften. Mit Experimenten wurden sie von der wahnsinnigen Reproduktionswissenschaftlerin Dibs (Juliette Binoche) gequält, bei denen bis auf Monte und Willow alle ums Leben kamen. Monte ist ein stiller Mann, der sich eine harte Selbstdisziplin auferlegt hat. Doch wenn er mit seiner Tochter zusammen ist, wird aus ihm ein zärtlicher Versorger. Nun sind die beiden die letzten Überlebenden der Crew und nähern sich in völliger Isolation ihrem letzten unausweichlichen Ziel: einem schwarzen Loch und damit auch dem Ende von Zeit und Raum. filmstarts.de

      „High Life“ ist ein schmerzhafter Film, doch es lohnt sich, die Expedition ins Nichts zu begleiten. Wer ein klassisches Weltraum-Epos erleben will, der bleibt besser auf dem Boden. Claire Denis‘ Vision ist kompromisslos und radikal. Ein einzigartiges, schwarzes Juwel. filmstarts.de 4,5/5

      In „High Life“ nimmt uns die französische Arthouse-Regisseurin Claire Denis mit ins Weltall. Von Zivilisation ist da oben aber nichts zu spüren. Stattdessen gibt es eine zwischen Wahnsinn und Klaustrophobie schwankende Stimmung, die nach und nach zwischenmenschliche Abgründe freilegt, während das Publikum vergebens auf Erlösung, Hoffnung oder eine tatsächliche Handlung wartet. Oliver Armknecht 8/10

      An Bord eines Raumschiffes werden übergriffige Experimente durchgeführt, die die Überlebenden vor komplizierte Fragen stellen und dem Publikum schwer zu denken geben. Claire Denis erobert mit ihrem ungewöhnlichen Vertreter eines traditionsreichen Genres reizvolles Neuland. epdFilm ?/10

    1. moviepilot.de 6,7/10

      Helge Schneider bringt es wieder einmal, wie so oft, auf den Punkt: „Die schwierigste Zeit im Leben eines Mannes ist die Pubertät, die zweitschlimmste ist die danach.“ Frauen geht es da bestimmt nicht viel besser... wenn der Körper voller Hormone gepumpt wird, die diesen verändern, das Interesse am anderen oder gleichen Geschlecht zunimmt, kurz: die Zeit, in der sich schlicht alles verändert und eine andere Bedeutung bekommt, ist wohl diejenige, die uns alle am meisten prägt. Nachdem in diesem Jahr Gus van Sant mit „Paranoid Park“ einen männlichen Jugendlichen ins Visier nimmt, kontert „Water Lilies“ von Céline Sciamma quasi von weiblicher Seite. filmstarts.de (3,5/5)

    1. moviepilot.de 6,5/10

      Miles Kendig (Walter Matthau) ist CIA-Agent und ein alter Hase in seinem Beruf. Er versteht etwas von seinem Job und schafft es so etwa, auf dem Oktoberfest einen sowjetischen Spionagering hochgehen zu lassen. Doch anstatt ihn mit einer Beförderung zu belohnen, entlässt ihn sein cholerischer Chef endgültig aus dem Dienst. Kendig macht seinem Ärger Luft, indem er seiner Geliebten Isobel (Glenda Jackson) einen Besuch in Salzburg abstattet. Dort trifft er auf den sowjetischen Agenten Yaskov (Herbert Lom), welcher ihn dazu überredet, seine Biografie zu schreiben. Kendig willigt ein und sendet jedes Kapitel sowohl an seinen ehemaligen Chef, als auch an den KGB. Schnell werden zwei CIA-Agenten ausgesendet, um den Fahnenflüchtigen zu finden, doch mit der Cleverness Kendigs hat niemand gerechnet…filmstarts.de

    1. England, 1865: Catherine (Florence Pugh) lebt gemeinsam mit ihrem Gatten Alexander (Paul Hilton) und seinem Vater Boris (Christopher Fairbank) auf dem Land. Liebe ist in dieser Beziehung nicht im Spiel und obwohl Boris beständig darauf pocht, Catherine solle ihre ehelichen Pflichten erfüllen, hat Alexander keinerlei Interesse am Körper seiner Frau. Als ihr Mann eines Tages verreist, nutzt Catherine die Möglichkeit, dem ihr auferlegten Hausarrest zu entkommen und erkundet die Gegend. So lernt sie einen der Landarbeiter, Sebastian (Cosmo Jarvis), kennen. Nach anfänglicher Unsicherheit und trotz einer priesterlichen Warnung gibt sich Catherine schließlich ihrer Leidenschaft hin und beginnt eine Affäre mit Sebastian. Doch Alexanders Rückkehr gefährdet das neu gefundene Glück und Catherine muss eine Entscheidung filmstarts.de 4,5/5

      moviepilot.de 6,5/10

      Aus einer eingeschüchterten jungen Frau wird eine kaltblütige Mörderin: In dieser stilsicheren, modernen und überaus spannenden neuen „Lady Macbeth“ schlägt Newcomerin Florence Pugh den Zuschauer von der ersten Szene an in ihren Bann. filmstarts.de 4,5/5

      „Lady Macbeth“ nimmt die klassische russische Novelle und macht daraus einen Film, der kälter und böser kaum sein könnte. Vor allem die junge Hauptdarstellerin sorgt dafür, dass der Wandel einer unterdrückten Gattin zu einer skrupellosen Herrscherin absolut sehenswert ist. Gleichzeitig lässt sich das Drama aber auch zu allgemeinen Themen aus, gerade in Bezug auf zwischenmenschliche Machtverhältnisse. Oliver Armknecht 8/10

      William Oldroyds im viktorianischen England spielende Verfilmung von Nikolai Leskows »Lady Macbeth aus Mzensk« besticht durch formale Virtuosität. epdFilm 6/10