161 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Sep 2022
    1. To see how this plays out, we can continue looking at matrix shapes. Tracing the matrix shape through the branches and weaves of the multihead attention blocks requires three more numbers. d_k: dimensions in the embedding space used for keys and queries. 64 in the paper. d_v: dimensions in the embedding space used for values. 64 in the paper. h: the number of heads. 8 in the paper.
  3. Jul 2022
    1. Not only is such thought beyond representation (and therefore beyond personware) possible,Weaver suggests but its occurrence constitutes a fundamental encounter which brings forth into existenceboth the world and the thinker. As such, thought sans image is deeply disturbing the stability andcontinuity of whatever personware the individual thinker may have been led to identify with andopens wide horizons of cognitive development and transformation ([13]: p. 35).

      !- similar to : Gyuri Lajos idea of tacit awareness !- implications : thought sans image !- refer : Gyuri Lajos https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343523812_Augmenting_Tacit_Awareness_Accepting_our_responsibility_for_how_we_shape_our_tools When one becomes cognizant of thought sans image, then one realizes the relative construction of one's social identity and that offers a freedom to take on another one * therefore, realization of thought sans image opens the door to authentic transformation

      !- question : thought sans image * If, as Weaver suggests, thought sans image is a primordial encounter which brings forth both the thinker and the world thought by the thinker, then this has strong similiarities to a spiritual awakening or enlightenment experience.

    2. though personwareis intrinsic to being a complete person it can be continuously modified, evolve or otherwise developed([5 ]: p. 201). More importantly, it can, to a significant extent, at least theoretically, be dynamicallygoverned and authored by the human individual. Hence, the human takeover.

      !- definition : human takeover * The ability for an individual to dynamically govern and author one's own personware. * The takeover gives us agency, rather than victimhood * the takeover can be triggered through realization of the difference between the thought sans image state and the conditioning into the symbolosphere

      !- question : spiritual enlightenment and personware * An interesting question is: "How does enlightenment impact the personware? " * Obviously, enlightenment cannot be an act of removing the personware. Language once learned cannot simply be meditated away. * Does the act of enlightenment then make the personware dramatically known to the individual as if it were indeed like a suit that we are wearing and not our fundamental nature? * Does enlightenment allow us to get more in contact with the prelinguistic and prepersonal

    3. David Bohm [ 31 ]: “Thinking’ implies the present tense (...) ‘Thought’is the past participle of that. We have the idea that after we have been thinking something, it justevaporates. But thinking doesn’t disappear. It goes somehow into the brain and leaves something—atrace—which becomes thought. And thought then acts automatically.

      !- follow up : David Bohm's ideas on thinking and thoughts * Thinking implies the present tense because it is an act we can only do in the present * When the present act of thinking is finished, it leaves traces in our consciousness * Those traces we refer to as "thoughts" * Thoughts act automatically - this is quite a pithy observation. We become thought automatons because once the thought is associated with all the other ideas, it alters the entire network of other thoughts on its own * "Thinking beyond the image of thought" may mean penetrating the existing automatized associations of thoughts with one that is quite novel and does not necessarily fit in, so is disruptive and can bring about a paradigm shift. * Read the reference to gain clarity

    4. While, as we propose, the symbolically constructed personware, seeking to reassert and reinforceitself, selects objects already recognized, thoughts already conceived and sentences already pronounced,the living human being can breathe and utter a voice that is new [5 ]. A human being can thus ‘take over’language. It can ‘take over’ thoughts—by thinking beyond the image of thought ([13 ]: chap.2).

      !- Insight : thought sans image * the symbolically constructed personware continually validates itself * The living, spontaneous, present human INTERbeing can generate something new * "Thinking beyond the image of thought" may mean penetrating the existing automatized associations of thoughts with one that is quite novel and does not necessarily fit in, so is disruptive and can bring about a paradigm shift.

    5. Can they reshape the contours and boundaries of their socialsituations instead of being shaped by them?

      !- key insight : can an individual reshape the contours of their social situations instead of being shaped by them? * This realization would open up the door to authentic inner transformation * This is an important way to describe the discovery of personal empowerment and agency via realization of the bare human spirit, the "thought sans image"

    6. Underneath whatever threads they have already identified with, there isalways a pregnant potentiality of thoughts yet to be shaped.

      !- Insight : thought sans image * If we recognize our intrinsic bare human spirit, it opens up possibilities to leave our identity behind like a suit we can take off * Nothing is socially predestined and in that recognition, there is a new-found freedom to replace our current personware

    7. Human beings are different from what they seem to be thinking, perceiving, or saying asmediated by social symbolic systems [29 ]. They are different from how they are represented intheir own narratives, they are different from language itself. Interestingly, learning to consciouslybecome aware to that difference—the bare human spirit, the preindividual, or being as becoming asSimondon [30 ] puts it—appears to be the state of mind towards which many spiritual traditionsare guiding. David R. Weinbaum (Weaver) refers to this state as thought sans image [ 13], offering itscontemporary conceptualisation via the metaphysical theories of Henri Bergson, Gilbert Simondon andGilles Deleuze, in combination with the enactive theory of cognition [14 ] and inputs from complexityscience

      !- key insight : thought sans image !- definition : thought sans image * human beings are NOT defined by what they are thinking, perceiving or saying as mediated by social symbolic systems * They are also NOT defined by their own narratives or language itself - the symbolosphere is culturally imposed upon the bare human being * That primordial nature is described as the bare human spirit, the preindividual, being-as-becoming (Simondon) * Many spiritual traditions guide practitioners to experience this primordial state, the nondual state, stripped of all cultural embellishments * David R. Weinbaum (Weaver) calls this state thought sans image based on the metaphysical theories of Henri Bergson, Gilbert Simondon and Gilles Deleuze and 4E theory of cognition

    1. Photo editing must separate from the crowd and express your personality.The problem, however, is that there are several high-quality picture editors to pick from.

      Lightroom, Luminar AI, and ON1 Photo RAW were mentioned in the list. These are RAW editors used before Photoshop. The shot is then brought into Photoshop (or another editor) for local modifications. Lightroom and Photoshop are used. Thanks!

  4. Jun 2022
    1. Modern photo editors (GNU Gimp, Adobe Photoshop, Zoner Photo Studio) are usually native apps, which have to be downloaded and installed on the device.

      Whether I'm doing a design in Photoshop or not, I always find it helpful to have another option for altering my photos, and I've found one that's both easy to use and powerful. In place of Photoshop, Photopea is a great option. This online picture editor is free; however, it offers almost all of Photoshop's features. Take a quick look at the following

  5. Apr 2022
    1. Example 1. For example, suppose that the input volume has size [32x32x3], (e.g. an RGB CIFAR-10 image). If the receptive field (or the filter size) is 5x5, then each neuron in the Conv Layer will have weights to a [5x5x3] region in the input volume, for a total of 5*5*3 = 75 weights (and +1 bias parameter). Notice that the extent of the connectivity along the depth axis must be 3, since this is the depth of the input volume. Example 2. Suppose an input volume had size [16x16x20]. Then using an example receptive field size of 3x3, every neuron in the Conv Layer would now have a total of 3*3*20 = 180 connections to the input volume. Notice that, again, the connectivity is local in 2D space (e.g. 3x3), but full along the input depth (20).

      These two examples are the first two layers of Andrej Karpathy's wonderful working ConvNetJS CIFAR-10 demo here

  6. Mar 2022
  7. Dec 2021
    1. eye

      The another spherical image in the poem

      Each eye, which is able to be interpreted as each hemisphere, is really a perfect world because, though they are not combined into one, when facing each other, contains both lovers (the one who is reflected and one who reflects is in unity in the eye).

      Source: The Visual Paradigm of 'The Good-Morrow': Donne's Cosmographical Glasse (1986)

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  8. Nov 2021
    1. The cube of activations that a neural network for computer vision develops at each hidden layer. Different slices of the cube allow us to target the activations of individual neurons, spatial positions, or channels.

      This is first explanation of

  9. Oct 2021
    1. When the Western world accepted Christianity, Caesar conquered; and the received text of Western theology was edited by his lawyers.… The brief Galilean vision of humility flickered throughout the ages, uncertainly.

      On the Homebrewed Christianity podcast, Tripp Fuller quotes Process and Reality by Alfred North Whitehead in a conversation with Brian McLaren (22:20).

      When the Western world accepted Christianity, Caesar conquered; and the received text of Western theology was edited by his lawyers. The code of Justinian and the theology of Justinian are two volumes expressing one movement of the human spirit. The brief Galilean vision of humility flickered throughout the ages, uncertainly. In the official formulation of the religion it has assumed the trivial form of the mere attribution to the Jews that they cherished a misconception about their Messiah. But the deeper idolatry, of the fashioning of God in the image of the Egyptian, Persian, and Roman imperial rulers, was retained. The Church gave unto God the attributes which belonged exclusively to Caesar.

      Whitehead, Alfred North. Process and Reality (Gifford Lectures Delivered in the University of Edinburgh During the Session 1927-28) (p. 342). Free Press. Kindle Edition.

      1. Can you see if we can do a left right layout for these two. Therefore deep automation text on the left hand side and image on the right for instance. And then you scroll down and go to the next one - single source of truth for everyone
      2. If we do left to right as suggested, then how many sentences are we looking at approximately. 6-7 lines?
    1. It is not only the essence of being human but also a vital property of life. Technological advances in communication shape society and lnake its members more interdependent

  10. Sep 2021
    1. Professional photographers who want to save time and benefit from picture editing services can consider my experience with the top image editing business in the United Kingdom that adheres to all current digital photography standards.

      I am constantly involved in their service, continually monitoring, counting the beautiful opinions of the clients who continue to evaluate the quality of the final product. So dig my post to find out what services can help you get perfectly edited images!

    1. A neural network will predict your digit in the blue square above. Your image is 784 pixels (= 28 rows by 28 columns with black=1 and white=0). Those 784 features get fed into a 3 layer neural network; Input:784 - AvgPool:196 - Dense:100 - Softmax:10.
  11. Aug 2021
  12. Jul 2021
    1. Nick Holliman. (2021, May 30). @anthonybmasters @d_spiegel A quick visual summary of data on this week’s article by @anthonybmasters & @d_spiegel The outlook is uncertain, although we have survived a variant once already (B.1.1.7). The data on the effect of variants is analysed as fast as it (reliably) arrives. Https://t.co/vOKmCxYMGT https://t.co/3ZeJJTdRs3 [Tweet]. @binocularity. https://twitter.com/binocularity/status/1398957348492918784

  13. Jun 2021
  14. May 2021
    1. David Benkeser. (2020, November 9). Another view on uncertainty associated based on Pfizer’s results. Even if you were highly skeptical about MRNA vaccines (many are [were?]) with 50% prior belief that VE ~ 0, based on an 8:86 vax:placebo case split, the posterior probability that VE > 75% is ~ 1. Https://t.co/xtBONtGHmT [Tweet]. @biosbenk. https://twitter.com/biosbenk/status/1325856366225993729

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2020, November 18). @danielmabuse yes, we all make mistakes, but a responsible actor also factors the kinds of mistakes she is prone to making into decisions on what actions to take: I’m not that great with my hands, so I never contemplated being a neuro-surgeon. Not everyone should be a public voice on COVID [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1329002783094296577

  15. Apr 2021
    1. op irrigation and drainage, multiple outdoor decks and terraces spanning more than 2,000 square feet, and a pool with a spa, according to the listing with Benjamin Illulian of Keller Williams. More: Jeff Bezos Drops $16 Million on Another Manhattan Pad to Create a ‘Vertical’ Dream Home Interior space is divided into four bedrooms, four bathrooms, formal living and dining rooms and an eat-in kitchen. The property is equipped with smart home appliances, and comes with 50 feet of curb frontage. Plus, it’s just steps away from popular shops and restaurants, the listing said. Mr. Illulian, who listed the property for $5.195 million in December 2019, didn’t respond to a request for comment. From: Penta Art Museums Given Leeway in Funding Mr. Legend, 41, a singer and music producer, and Ms. Teigen, 34, a model and TV personality, could not immediately be reached for comment. The couple recently purchased a Manhattan apartment—their second in the same building. Marshall Peck of Douglas Elliman, who represented the buyers in the deal, declined to comment.   if (!window.WEBUI_NEWSLETTERCARDS) { window.WEBUI_NEWSLETTERCARDS = []; } window.WEBUI_NEWSLETTERCARDS.push({ articleId: 'MG0000214176', state: {"data":{},"id":"mg/newsletterCard","context":{"newsletterId":"801","newsletter":{"_id":"5ec24a31d782d55d025c60ae","node_type":"newsletter","edition":"mansionglobal","section":"newsletters","id":"801","label":"Week in Review","description":"Shares the stories you may have missed from the world of luxury real estate","index":2,"previewURL":"","imageURL":"","addURL":"","addLabel":"","subOnly":false,"orderAlphabetic":"","options":"","disableSignup":false},"isLoggedIn":false,"hasFullNewsletterAccess":false,"hasFreeNewsletterAccess":false,"region":"na,us","editionId":"mansionglobal","returnLink":"https://www.mansionglobal.com"},"package":{"accessedContext":[],"nodes":{"0":{"component":{"id":"275181c7-8620-4df3-a008-d0cd9937db22","acceptsTypes":{},"isConditional":false,"$context":{},"decorators":["MGTheme"]},"children":["webUINewsletterCard-0.0"],"treeOrder":1,"name":"0","hierarchy":"0"},"webUINewsletterCard-0.0":{"component":{"content":{},"options":{"productId":200,"captchaSiteKey":"6LcmI7sUAAAAAF-vTKb3JIwIzz2CXCx8hJW0Ukis","origin":"articles_app","returnLink":"https://www.mansionglobal.com","editionId":"mansionglobal","content":{"data":{}}},"decorators":["MGTheme"],"id":"c7081dd6-0394-e7b2-1124-a02c2970agdf","acceptsTypes":{"newsletter_config_data":true},"isConditional":false,"$context":{"./content/newsletter":{"key":[".","content","newsletter"],"value":["#","newsletter"]},"./options/region":{"key":[".","options","region"],"value":["#","region"]},"./options/newsletterId":{"key":[".","options","newsletterId"],"value":["#","newsletterId"]},"./options/userEmail":{"key":[".","options","userEmail"],"value":["#","userEmail"]},"./options/loggedIn":{"key":[".","options","loggedIn"],"value":["#","isLoggedIn"]},"./options/hasFullNewsletterAccess":{"key":[".","options","hasFullNewsletterAccess"],"value":["#","hasFullNewsletterAccess"]},"./options/hasFreeNewsletterAccess":{"key":[".","options","hasFreeNewsletterAccess"],"value":["#","hasFreeNewsletterAccess"]},"./options/content/data/list":{"key":[".","options","content","data","list"],"value":["#","newsletter"]}}},"name":"webUINewsletterCard-0.0","treeOrder":2,"hierarchy":"0"}},"root":"0","states":{"nodes":[],"data":[],"hierarchy":{},"dedupeGroups":{},"components":{"code___decoratedComponent___275181c7-8620-4df3-a008-d0cd9937db22___MGTheme":{"id":"275181c7-8620-4df3-a008-d0cd9937db22","decorators":["MGTheme"]},"code___decoratedComponent___c7081dd6-0394-e7b2-1124-a02c2970agdf___MGTheme":{"id":"c7081dd6-0394-e7b2-1124-a02c2970agdf","decorators":["MGTheme"]}}},"refreshInterval":null},"currentState":{"data":[],"nodes":{},"hierarchy":{},"dedupeGroups":{},"components":{"code___decoratedComponent___275181c7-8620-4df3-a008-d0cd9937db22___MGTheme":{"id":"275181c7-8620-4df3-a008-d0cd9937db22","decorators":["MGTheme"]},"code___decoratedComponent___c7081dd6-0394-e7b2-1124-a02c2970agdf___MGTheme":{"id":"c7081dd6-0394-e7b2-1124-a02c2970agdf","decorators":["MGTheme"]}}}} }); Newsletter Sign-up Week in Review Shares the stories you may have missed from the world of luxury real estate PREVIEWSUBSCRIBE window.INITIAL_PROPS_NEWSLETTER_BOTTOM_COL = {} NEW LISTINGS SINGLE FAMILY HOME LOS ANGELES

      )

  16. Mar 2021
  17. Feb 2021
    1. The newest generation of image codecs—in particular AVIF and JPEG XL—are a major improvement of the old JPEG and PNG codecs. To be sure, JPEG 2000 and WebP also compress more effectively and offer more features, yet the overall gain is not significant and consistent enough to warrant fast and widespread adoption. AVIF and JPEG XL will do much better—at least that’s what I hope.

      Comparison of image codecs (JPEG, PNG, JPEG 2000, WebP, HEIC, AVIF, JPEG XL)

  18. Jan 2021
    1. Snaps each pick a ‘base’, for example, Ubuntu18 (corresponding to the set of minimal debs in Ubuntu 18.04 LTS). Nevertheless, the choice of base does not impact on your ability to use a snap on any of the supported Linux distributions or versions — it’s a choice of the publisher and should be invisible to you as a user or developer.

      Snaps sound a lot like container images in this respect.

    1. Bordering an element with a single repeating image is something that seems like it should be easy with a property called border-image, but the process for actually doing that is somewhat counter-intuitive. Let’s say, for example, that you want to border an element with a repeating heart icon. You can’t do that with a image of a single heart. Instead, you have to make an image of a “frame” of hearts arranged as you’d like them to appear in the border, then slice that image. <img sizes="(min-width: 735px) 864px, 96vw" src='https://i2.wp.com/css-tricks.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/enlarged-border-image-slice.png' alt='' data-recalc-dims="1" />Eight hearts in a “frame” image, enlarged to show detail. The red lines indicate slices. If you think that sounds preposterous, you’re in good company. There was a lengthy discussion of the subject on Eric Myer’s blog a few years ago where many frontend development greats weighed in.
    1. Small components can set the size of their corner shape using a percentage of the absolute height of the component. This means the corner shape will change as the component height changes.
  19. Dec 2020
  20. Nov 2020
  21. Oct 2020
    1. The prevalent practice of damaging images of the human form—and the anxiety surrounding the desecration—dates to the beginnings of Egyptian history. Intentionally damaged mummies from the prehistoric period, for example, speak to a “very basic cultural belief that damaging the image damages the person represented,” Bleiberg said. Likewise, how-to hieroglyphics provided instructions for warriors about to enter battle: Make a wax effigy of the enemy, then destroy it. Series of texts describe the anxiety of your own image becoming damaged, and pharaohs regularly issued decrees with terrible punishments for anyone who would dare threaten their likeness.
  22. Sep 2020
  23. Aug 2020
    1. S

      This “image” icon should be replaced with the associated image from the Draper text or a similar novel figure. The figure form the Draper text pictures the amino acid sequence of GLP-1, and concisely describes its effects on kidney, muscle, brain, heart, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and adipose tissues.

    1. Two, deciding whether or not your image (and, by exten-sion—since many Instagrammers post images of themselves—your body) has worth. You can base this purely on how many likes it gets, but if you don’t see how many likes other images get, you can’t compare your number of likes to anyone else’s. You can only compete with yourself. As we’ll learn in Chapter 4 when we discuss contrast effect, we avoid making decisions in a vacuum, so if you show us other people’s likes, we’ll be tempted to use them to rate our own value. Removing likes is a step away from making a bad decision about what to compare your image to.

      I like the thinking here and where it could subtly push us to.

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  24. Jun 2020
  25. docs.microsoft.com docs.microsoft.com
    1. az disk revoke-access Revoke a resource's read access to a managed disk.

      Here's why it's important to revoke access (rom Upload a VHD to Azure or copy a managed disk to another region - Azure PowerShell):

      After the upload is complete, and you no longer need to write any more data to the disk, revoke the SAS. Revoking the SAS will change the state of the managed disk and allow you to attach the disk to a VM.

  26. May 2020
    1. Scripts In addition to plug-ins, which are programs written in the C language, GIMP can also make use of scripts. The largest number of existing scripts are written in a language called Script-Fu, which is unique to GIMP (for those who care, it is a dialect of the Lisp-like language called Scheme). It is also possible to write GIMP scripts in Python or Perl. These languages are more flexible and powerful than Script-Fu; their disadvantage is that they depend on software that does not automatically come packaged with GIMP, so they are not guaranteed to work correctly in every GIMP installation.
    2. Channels A Channel is a single component of a pixel's color. For a colored pixel in GIMP, these components are usually Red, Green, Blue and sometimes transparency (Alpha). For a Grayscale image, they are Gray and Alpha and for an Indexed color image, they are Indexed and Alpha. The entire rectangular array of any one of the color components for all of the pixels in an image is also referred to as a Channel. You can see these color channels with the Channels dialog.
    3. Layers If a simple image can be compared to a single sheet of paper, an image with layers is likened to a sheaf of transparent papers stacked one on top of the other. You can draw on each paper, but still see the content of the other sheets through the transparent areas. You can also move one sheet in relation to the others. Sophisticated GIMP users often deal with images containing many layers, even dozens of them. Layers need not be opaque, and they need not cover the entire extent of an image, so when you look at an image's display, you may see more than just the top layer: you may see elements of many layers.
    4. A GIMP image may be quite a complicated thing. Instead of thinking of it as a sheet of paper with a picture on it, think of it as more like a stack of sheets, called “layers”. In addition to a stack of layers, a GIMP image may contain a selection mask, a set of channels, and a set of paths. In fact, GIMP provides a mechanism for attaching arbitrary pieces of data, called “parasites”, to an image.
    1. A procedural database for calling internal GIMP functions from external programs, such as Script-Fu
    2. Full Alpha channel support for working with transparency
    3. Features and Capabilities The following list is a short overview of some of the features and capabilities which GIMP offers you: A full suite of painting tools including brushes, a pencil, an airbrush, cloning, etc. Tile-based memory management, so image size is limited only by available disk space Sub-pixel sampling for all paint tools for high-quality anti-aliasing Full Alpha channel support for working with transparency Layers and channels A procedural database for calling internal GIMP functions from external programs, such as Script-Fu Advanced scripting capabilities Multiple undo/redo (limited only by disk space) Transformation tools including rotate, scale, shear and flip Support for a wide range of file formats, including GIF, JPEG, PNG, XPM, TIFF, TGA, MPEG, PS, PDF, PCX, BMP and many others Selection tools, including rectangle, ellipse, free, fuzzy, bezier and intelligent scissors Plug-ins that allow for the easy addition of new file formats and new effect filters.
  27. Apr 2020
    1. Относно имунологичен тест за SARS CoV2 Чрез тази система регистрирани лаборатории в България могат да въвеждат данните от резултатите от бързите тестовете за антитела, които правят. Освен броят тестове, те въвеждат и резултатите за Имуноглобулин G (IgG / ИгГ) и за Имуноглобулин М (IgM). В системата ще могат да се въвеждат и тестове за антиген (PCR тестове). Благодарение на въведените данни ще може да се локализира разпространението на вируса по градове и региони, както и конкретни лаборатории със завишен брой положителни тестове.

      The photo shows a "One Step Rapid Test" pack and two cartridges with test results.

  28. Mar 2020
  29. Feb 2020
    1. Image Credit: Detail from "The School of Athens" by Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (c. 1509–1511).

      Euclid's common notions appear to be grounds for many of Marx's arguments in Ch. 1, but also throughout the book.

      Near the beginning of Ch. 1 of the Elements Euclid lists them [PDF]:

      • Things that are equal to the same thing are also equal to one another (the Transitive property of a Euclidean relation).
      • If equals are added to equals, then the wholes are equal (Addition property of equality).
      • If equals are subtracted from equals, then the differences are equal (Subtraction property of equality).
      • Things that coincide with one another are equal to one another (Reflexive property).
      • The whole is greater than the part.

      Regarding the fifth, also see Aristotle, Metaphysics 8.6 [=1045a]; Topics 6.13 (=150a15-16);

      On the concept of the "whole-before-the-parts" (along with the "whole of the parts" and the "whole in the part"), also see Proclus, El. Theol., prop. 67.

  30. Dec 2019
    1. Fortunately, the latest-model iPhones feature camera resolutions up to 12 MP; and DSLR cameras often feature 18 MP and up, so you don’t need to be a professional photographer to start with a high-resolution image.
    2. Another name for 7.2 million pixels is 7.2 megapixels (MP); which means you’ll need a minimum 7.2 MP camera to get the best resolution for your 8” x 10” photo.
    3. You can multiply both 8 and 10 by 300 to get the full pixel dimensions of the finished image. 8(300) X 10(300) = 2,400px X 3,000px You can multiply both 8 and 10 by 300 to get the full pixel dimensions of the finished image. 2,400 X 3,000 = 7.2 million pixels
    4. What is the best resolution for printing? What resolution should photos be for printing? What should DPI (or PPI) be for printing high-quality artwork? In many cases, the best resolution for printing is 300 PPI.
    5. Often, PPI and dots per inch (DPI) are used interchangeably; however, PPI and DPI are not identical. Though they are similar, PPI refers to the pixels per inch on your computer screen, while DPI refers to the ink dots per inch applied by a printing press.
    6. What is image resolution? Image resolution can be defined as the level of detail in an image. Raster images are comprised of a series of pixels, where resolution is the]]> total number of pixels along an image’s width and height]]>, expressed as pixels per inch (PPI).
    1. These Web pages presents a set of examples using ImageMagick ("IM," for short) from the command line. However, they also illustrate what can be done using the ImageMagick Application Programming Interface (API). As such, these pages should be the first stop for IM users after reading the terse Command Line (CLI) Option manuals.
    1. We see that ImageMagick is very good about preserving aspect ratios of images, to prevent distortion of your favorite photos and images. But you might really want the dimensions to be 100x200, thereby stretching the image. In this case just tell ImageMagick you really mean it (!) by appending an exclamation operator to the geometry. This will force the image size to exactly what you specify. So, for example, if you specify 100x200! the dimensions will become exactly 100x200 (giving a small, vertically elongated wizard)
    2. Image Geometry Many command-line options take a geometry argument to specify such things as the desired width and height of an image and other dimensional quantities. Because users want so many variations on the resulting dimensions, sizes, and positions of images (and because ImageMagick wants to provide them), the geometry argument can take many forms. We describe many of these in this section. The image options and settings that take some form of a geometry argument include the following. Keep in mind that some of these parse their arguments in slightly different ways. See the documentation for the individual option or setting for more specifics. ‑adaptive‑resize • ‑border • ‑borderwidth • ‑chop • ‑crop • ‑density • ‑extent • ‑extract • ‑frame • ‑geometry • ‑iconGeometry • ‑liquid‑rescale • ‑page • ‑region • ‑repage • ‑resize • ‑sample • ‑scale • ‑shave • ‑splice • ‑thumbnail • ‑window The geometry argument might take any of the forms listed in the table below. These will described in more detail in the subsections following the table. The usual form is size[offset], meaning size is required and offset is optional. Occasionally, [size]offset is possible. In no cases are spaces permitted within the geometry argument. size General description (actual behavior can vary for different options and settings) scale% Height and width both scaled by specified percentage. scale-x%xscale-y% Height and width individually scaled by specified percentages. (Only one % symbol needed.) width Width given, height automagically selected to preserve aspect ratio. xheight Height given, width automagically selected to preserve aspect ratio. widthxheight Maximum values of height and width given, aspect ratio preserved. widthxheight^ Minimum values of width and height given, aspect ratio preserved. widthxheight! Width and height emphatically given, original aspect ratio ignored. widthxheight> Shrinks an image with dimension(s) larger than the corresponding width and/or height argument(s). widthxheight< Enlarges an image with dimension(s) smaller than the corresponding width and/or height argument(s). area@ Resize image to have specified area in pixels. Aspect ratio is preserved. x:y Here x and y denotes an aspect ratio (e.g. 3:2 = 1.5). {size}{offset} Specifying the offset (default is +0+0). Below, {size} refers to any of the forms above. {size}{+-}x{+-}y Horizontal and vertical offsets x and y, specified in pixels. Signs are required for both. Offsets are affected by ‑gravity setting. Offsets are not affected by % or other size operators. Note that positive X and Y offsets are in the inward direction towards the center of the image for all ‑gravity options, except 'center'. For East, +X is left. For South, +Y is up. For SouthEast, +X is left and +Y is up. For center, the normal X and Y directional convention is used (+X is right and +Y is down). Basic adjustments to width and height; the operators %, ^, and ! Here, just below, are a few simple examples of geometry, showing how it might be used as an argument to the ‑resize option. We'll use the internal image logo: for our input image. This fine image is 640 pixels wide and 480 pixels high. We say its dimensions are 640x480. When we give dimensions of an image, the width (the horizontal dimension) always precedes the height (the vertical dimension). This will be true when we speak of coordinates or offsets into an image, which will always be x–value followed by y. Just think of your high school algebra classes and the xy–plane. (Well, almost: our y–axis will always go downward!) magick logo: -resize '200%' bigWiz.png magick logo: -resize '200x50%' longShortWiz.png magick logo: -resize '100x200' notThinWiz.png magick logo: -resize '100x200^' biggerNotThinWiz.png magick logo: -resize '100x200!' dochThinWiz.png The first of the four commands is simple—it stretches both the width and height of the input image by 200% in each direction; it magnifies the whole thing by a factor of two. The second command specifies different percentages for each direction, stretching the width to 200% and squashing the height to 50%. The resulting image (in this example) has dimensions 1280x240. Notice that the percent symbol needn't be repeated; the following are equivalent: 200x50%, 200%x50, 200%x50%. By default, the width and height given in a geometry argument are maximum values unless a percentage is specified. That is, the image is expanded or contracted to fit the specified width and height value while maintaining the aspect ratio (the ratio of its height to its width) of the image. For instance, the third command above "tries" to set the dimensions to 100x200. Imagine gradually shrinking the original image (which is 640x480), keeping is aspect ratio constant, until it just fits into a 100x200 rectangle. Since the image is longer than it is tall, it will fit when its width shrinks to 100 pixels. To preserve the aspect ratio, the height will therefore have to be (480/640)×100 pixels=75 pixels, so the final dimensions will be 100x75. Notice that in the previous example, at least one of the specified dimensions will be attained (in this case, the width, 100 pixels). The resulting image fits snugly within the original. One can do just the opposite of this by invoking the ^ operator, as in the fourth example above. In that case, when 100x200^ is given as the argument, again at least one of the dimensions will be attained, but in this case the resulting image can snugly contain the original. Here the geometry argument gives minimum values. In our example, the height will become 200 and the width will be scaled to preserve the aspect ratio, becoming (640/480)×200 pixels=267 pixels. With the ^ operator, one of those dimensions will match the requested size, but the image will likely overflow the dimensions requested to preserve its aspect ratio. (The ^ feature is new as of IM 6.3.8-2.) We see that ImageMagick is very good about preserving aspect ratios of images, to prevent distortion of your favorite photos and images. But you might really want the dimensions to be 100x200, thereby stretching the image. In this case just tell ImageMagick you really mean it (!) by appending an exclamation operator to the geometry. This will force the image size to exactly what you specify. So, for example, if you specify 100x200! the dimensions will become exactly 100x200 (giving a small, vertically elongated wizard). Bounding the width, height, and area; the operators >, <, and @ Here are a few more examples: magick logo: -resize '100' wiz1.png magick logo: -resize 'x200' wiz2.png magick logo: -resize '100x200>' wiz3.png magick logo: -resize '100x200<' wiz4.png If only one dimension is given it is taken to be the width. When only the width is specified, as in the first example above, the width is accepted as given and the height is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio of the input image. Similarly, if only the height is specified, as in the second example above, the height is accepted and the width is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio. Use > to shrink an image only if its dimension(s) are larger than the corresponding width and/or height arguments. Use < to enlarge an image only if its dimension(s) are smaller than the corresponding width and/or height arguments. In either case, if a change is made, the result is as if the > or < operator was not present. So, in the third example above, we specified 100x200> and the original image size is 640x480, so the image size is reduced as if we had specified 100x200. However, in the fourth example above, there will be no change to its size. Finally, use @ to specify the maximum area in pixels of an image, again while attempting to preserve aspect ratio. (Pixels take only integer values, so some approximation is always at work.) In the following example, an area of 10000 pixels is requested. The resulting file has dimensions 115x86, which has 9890 pixels. magick logo: -resize '10000@' wiz10000.png In all the examples above and below, we have enclosed the geometry arguments within quotation marks. Doing so is optional in many cases, but not always. We must enclose the geometry specifications in quotation marks when using < or > to prevent these characters from being interpreted by the shell as file redirection. On Windows systems, the carat ^ needs to be within quotes, else it is ignored. To be safe, one should probably maintain a habit of enclosing all geometry arguments in quotes, as we have here. Offsets in geometry Here are some examples to illustrate the use of offsets in geometry arguments. One typical use of offsets is in conjunction with the ‑region option. This option allows many other options to modify the pixels within a specified rectangular subregion of an image. As such, it needs to be given the width and height of that region, and also an offset into the image, which is a pair of coordinates that indicate the location of the region within the larger image. Below, in the first example, we specify a region of size 100x200 to be located at the xy–coordinates x=10, y=20. Let's use the usual algebraic notation (x,y)=(10,20), for convenience. magick logo: -region '100x200+10+20' -negate wizNeg1.png magick logo: -region '100x200-10+20' -negate wizNeg2.png magick logo: -gravity center -region '100x200-10+20' -negate wizNeg3.png Note that offsets always require +/− signs. The offset is not actually a true location within the image; its coordinates must be added to some other location. Let's refer to that as the current location. In the first two examples above, though, that location is the upper-left hand corner of the image, which has coordinates (0,0). (That is the default situation when there are no other directives given to change it.) The first example above puts the 100x200 rectangle's own upper-left corner at (10,20). A negative offset can make sense in many cases. In the second example above, the offset is (-10,20), specified by -10+20. In that case, only the portion of the (virtual) rectangle obtained that lies within the image can be negated; here it is equivalent to specifying the geometry as 90x200+0+20. In the third example above, the ‑gravity setting precedes the others and sets the current location within the image at the very center of the image. In this case that is at pixel (320,240), since the size of the image is 640x480. This means that the offsets apply to that location, which thereby gets moved, in this case, to (320-10,240+20)=(310,260). But the 100x200 region itself is affected by the ‑gravity setting, so instead of affecting its upper-left corner, the region's own center (at (+50,+100) within it) is determined. Therefore the center of the 100x200 rectangle is moved to (310,260). The negated rectangle's upper-left corner is now at (310-50,260-100)=(260,160).
  31. Nov 2019
    1. Use ImageMagick® to create, edit, compose, or convert bitmap images. It can read and write images in a variety of formats (over 200) including PNG, JPEG, GIF, HEIC, TIFF, DPX, EXR, WebP, Postscript, PDF, and SVG. Use ImageMagick to resize, flip, mirror, rotate, distort, shear and transform images, adjust image colors, apply various special effects, or draw text, lines, polygons, ellipses and Bézier curves.
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    1. gymnosperms and angiosperms

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    1. Multi-digit Number Recognition from Street ViewImagery using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

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