77 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Madison’s design has proved durable. But what would happen to American democracy if, one day in the early 21st century, a technology appeared that—over the course of a decade—changed several fundamental parameters of social and political life? What if this technology greatly increased the amount of “mutual animosity” and the speed at which outrage spread? Might we witness the political equivalent of buildings collapsing, birds falling from the sky, and the Earth moving closer to the sun?

      Jonathan Haidt, you might have noticed, is a scholar that I admire very much. In this piece, his colleague Tobias Rose-Stockwell and he ask the following questions: Is social media a threat to our democracy? Let's read the following article together and think about their question together.

  2. Oct 2019
    1. This year's Miss Eastwood winner, 17-year-old PLC Pymble student Lucy Fang of Marsfield, said she would use the $1000 prize money from Yuhu Group to restart a local reading program for young children. She also gets to lead Saturday's Granny Smith Festival parade. "I'm so excited to use this opportunity to give back to my community," she said.

      By this stage you would have been lamenting this disastrous assignment.

      It started out an quick and easy regurgitation to help a mate that only needed a few omissions and some unbalanced assertions and some of the cheaper of the available background paragraphs.

      And now you were hearing this year's winner would reinvest her cash prize into a community initiative. It wasn't what you signed up for.

      Where was the sinister, evil ingredient to be included in one line to top off your pre-written story?

    1. Liberal and Conservative Representations of the Good Society: A (Social) Structural Topic Modeling Approach

      I chose this article, because it is timely, relevant, easy-to-follow (because it is intuitive), and innovative (using data sources, Twitter, and an innovative method, textual analysis). I hope you enjoy the reading. Please follow my annotations (comments + questions) and respond to the questions I pose. Try to answer them in your own words.

  3. Sep 2019
    1. More conspicuously, since Trump’s election, the RNC — at his campaign’s direction — has excluded critical “voter scores” on the president from the analytics it routinely provides to GOP candidates and committees nationwide, with the aim of electing down-ballot Republicans. Republican consultants say the Trump information is being withheld for two reasons: to discourage candidates from distancing themselves from the president, and to avoid embarrassing him with poor results that might leak. But they say its concealment harms other Republicans, forcing them to campaign without it or pay to get the information elsewhere.
    2. Trump’s online and email fundraising generated a record $239 million in small-dollar donations, far more than Hillary Clinton’s and more than two-thirds of his donation total, according to the nonpartisan Campaign Finance Institute. This made Trump competitive in a race where he was outspent nearly 2 to 1.

      Not to mention the free media he was getting from the mainstream media who covered the spectacle.

  4. Feb 2019
  5. Jan 2019
  6. Nov 2018
    1. Medical groups, managed care organizations, or, most commonly, hospitals often find it attractive to support hospitalist programs. If hospitalists improve quality, shorten lengths of stay, and decrease costs while satisfying patients and other providers, the return on these organizations' investments in hospitalist programs is highly favorable. Over time, it will be critical that professional fee reimbursement rates be adjusted so that a sustainable hospitalist workload creates sufficient income to support a full salary.
  7. Oct 2018
    1. Narratives that describe time as uniform and evolving throughout history towards more accelerated states have also been critiqued for theirpotential to reinforce social inequalities (Sharma 2014) and for justifyingthe appropriation of natural resources in unsustainable ways (Bastian 2012).

      This loosely couples with the degrowth discourses around steady state economies and possible political ecologies

    1. So the fact that we are so widely off the mark in our perception of how most people feel about political correctness should probably also make us rethink some of our other basic assumptions about the country.
    2. One obvious question is what people mean by “political correctness.” In the extended interviews and focus groups, participants made clear that they were concerned about their day-to-day ability to express themselves: They worry that a lack of familiarity with a topic, or an unthinking word choice, could lead to serious social sanctions for them. But since the survey question did not define political correctness for respondents, we cannot be sure what, exactly, the 80 percent of Americans who regard it as a problem have in mind.
    3. Political tribe—as defined by the authors—is an even better predictor of views on political correctness. Among devoted conservatives, 97 percent believe that political correctness is a problem. Among traditional liberals, 61 percent do. Progressive activists are the only group that strongly backs political correctness: Only 30 percent see it as a problem.
    4. On social media, the country seems to divide into two neat camps: Call them the woke and the resentful. Team Resentment is manned—pun very much intended—by people who are predominantly old and almost exclusively white. Team Woke is young, likely to be female, and predominantly black, brown, or Asian (though white “allies” do their dutiful part). These teams are roughly equal in number, and they disagree most vehemently, as well as most routinely, about the catchall known as political correctness.
  8. Sep 2018
    1. This won't be the first time that teens use Snapchat as a portal for political action.

      Teens feel that they are capable of voicing their opinions about certain things through Snapchat when they are afraid to speak up.

  9. Aug 2018
    1. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power.

      If Facebook were to continue to evolve at it's current rate and with it's potential power as well as political influence, I could see it attempting to work the way China does in a new political regime.

    2. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began.
    3. Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious.

      and probably not a bad outcome in an earlier era that thought of things in terms of clockwork and lacked the ideas of quantum theory and its attendant uncertainties.

  10. Nov 2017
    1. U.S. faces a hard set of choices, in a context shadowed by conflicting imperatives and the agendas of other regional powers. One can understand the caution shown by the administration -- at least as much as the zeal of those who want the U.S. to be embroiled in the region once more.
    1. U.S., British, and other coalition forces quickly overwhelm the Iraqi Army, though elements loyal to Saddam Hussein who will form the core of a postwar insurgency fight on
    1. the events leading up to the 2003 invasion only go half way to explain why the US chose to launch this campaign, and in order to understand the complex and multidimensional factors contributing to the Bush administration’s decision to invade Iraq, one must go back further and examine pre 9/11 US policy. Likewise, the official and publically stated reasons for military action only go some way to explain the invasion, and one must look at the unofficial factors and goals which were determinants of equal importance.
    1. Americans believed that the initial decision to go to war in 2003 was the right one, and an even smaller number still supported the administration’s handling of the situation in Iraq.
    2. American opinions on the war sometimes crossed traditional party lines and doctrinal affiliation, with many to the right of the avowedly conservative Bush seeing the war as an act of reckless internationalism and some to the political left—appalled by the Baʿthist regime’s brutal human rights violations and its consistent aggression—giving grudging support to military action
  11. Oct 2017
    1. Nevertheless,manystudieshavefoundlittleevidencethatsociallyandeconomicallydisadvantagedgroupparticipationincreaseswhenpoliticsisconductedthroughtheInternet,whetherinwaysthatmimicofflineforms,suchaspetitions,ornewones,suchassocialmedia

      Hay un "remedo" de participación, que presupone que porque tenemos acceso a Internet estamos participando. La participación real debe estar asociada a modelos socioeconómicos que la hagan posible y la valoren más allá del extractivismo y la exclusión actual.

  12. Sep 2017
    1. Surman and Reilly (2003) focus on appropriation of networked technologies in a strategically, politically, and creatively innovative manner oriented toward social change. In this context of advocacy, effective technology appropriation includes strategic Internet use for collaboration, publishing, mobilization, and observation. Here, the delineation between the use and appropriation occurs when technology is adapted to reflect goals and culture. Camacho (2001) describes appropriation by civil society organizations at the pinnacle of a technology use ladder. In the middle of the ladder, organizations focus on adoption of conventional technology. Toward the bottom, organizations and individuals with constrained access or slow adoption rates lag behind and seek access to technology. At the pinnacle, however, pioneers and activists appropriate technology to promote causes, for instance, creating flash mobs through mass text messaging to instantaneously organize large groups of people for social protest

      Desde el comienzo, el Data Week ha estado preocupado por la perspectiva de transformación social en la apropiación tecnológica al estar vinculada con la creación de capacidad en la base, modificación de la infraestructura y la amplificación de voces ciudadanas frente a iniciativas privadas o públicas.

    2. This article frames appropriation as a political process.

      [...] ICTs provide unique flexibility for users to interact and re-invent. ICTs can be modified and re-programmed, whether the ability to modify is explicitly enabled through design or uncovered through hacking. Device producers, application designers, content creators, service providers, and end users can therefore engage in the creative appropriation process and insight into social, economic, and political impacts can be gained exploring appropriation modalities.

      Esto se puede conectar con la introducción respecto al caracter fluído, pero paradógico de las tecnologías digitales.

      Nótese acá la connotación de hacking en términos de apertura y reinterpretación.

    1. Successive waves of activists saw the Internet as a tool for transparency. The framing of openness shifted in meaning from information to data, weakening of mechanisms for accountability even as it opened up new forms of political participation. Drawing on a year of interviews and participant observation, I suggest civic data hacking can be framed as a form of data activism and advocacy: requesting, digesting, contributing to, modeling, and contesting data
  13. Jun 2017
    1. Like many people, I’ve thought 2016 was a surreal year; the Cubs won the World Series, Hillary Clinton went on television to warn people about white-supremacist memes, Elon Musk has landed rockets on ocean platforms and started an organization to develop Friendly AI.  Surreal, right? No. It’s real, not surreal. If reality looks weird, this means our stories about it are wrong. Did polls and newspapers and social media fail to see this election coming? Then those sources just took a hit in credibility. On a longer-term note, if you know there’s a replication crisis in scientific research, that should be shaking up your trust in published papers. There may be a crisis in politics. But before we can do anything sensible about that, we need to understand that there is a crisis in credence. If the world looks weird to you and me today, that is not a matter for rueful laughter, it is a sign that we are probably badly wrong about lots of things.
  14. May 2017
    1. It is a distressing and terrible thing to see that the head of Christendom, who boasts of being the vicar of Christ and the successor of St. Peter, lives in a worldly pomp that no king or emperor can equal, so that in him that calls himself most holy and most spiritual there is more worldliness than in the world itself.

      This quote is saying its a terrible thing that the Pope head of Christianity gloats to his people about being the right hand man to Christ and St. Peter. But the Pope is so concerned with power and being all mighty that he must continuously have the most power.

    1. The wild boar from the forest seeks to destroy it and every wild beast feeds upon it.

      Before this statement he is referring to religion and to the Lord and how he will judge all. I feel this statement is more of a scare tactic in setting the tone for what will happen if people don't follow Catholicism therefore sense the tone to be more political relating to power.

  15. Apr 2017
    1. ound," they are usually created.

      Depends which kind of rhetor you are. For this example, if you are say the government official that is involved in this situation, the case could be made that the situation was created. But, if you are a reporter or some media employee, chances are you "found" the situation and translated to the public. At the same time, that's also the literally sense of found, which most likely isn't the meaning here.

  16. Mar 2017
    1. Meryl Streep Wins Supporting Actress: 1980 Oscars

      The material contained in this video are the contents of Meryl Streep's first Academy Award for Kramer vs Kramer in 1980.

      During her speech she gives praise and thanks to the director, crew members such as costume, lighting etc.

      She also goes on to thank her co-star Dustin Hoffman whom also wins for Best Actor this year.

      Meryl does not express any of her political concerns during this moment. A moment that will not compare to her future wins because nothing compares to your first.

  17. Feb 2017
    1. All that man can say or do can never elevate us, it is a work that must be effected between God and ourselves. And how'! By dropping all political discussions in our behalf, for these, in my opinion, sow the seed of discord, and strengthen the cord of preju-dic

      Oh, so maybe the personal is not political for Stewart. . . .

    2. It was contempt for my moral and religious opinions in private that drove me thus before a public.

      In addition to LoLo's earlier observation, this is another idea (the personal is political) which Stewart is talking about before it blew up in second wave feminism.

    1. slavery's opponents should have as little to do with this evil government as pos-sible, instead attempting to abolish slavery by persuading iL<; advocates that it was morally wrong.

      For some reason I keep thinking of the famous Audre Lorde line, "For the master's tools will never dismantle the master's house," even though I think it's application here is fairly flawed. Garrison wanted abolitionists to work outside the politics and economics of government that helped to support slavery as a way of defeating that very system (see: Lorde), but I'm lost as to how "persuading" advocates of slavery of its immorality (especially by using Christian moral tropes as his main source of appeal) is not participating within that system? I guess I'm surprised that Garrison considered persuasion as being rhetorically separate from the political, and I'm curious about what he might consider the distinction of non-political persuasion to be?

  18. Oct 2016
      • 5:48 Expert Political Judgment

        • Discusses the concept of Integrative Complexity
          • People with a lot of integrative complexity are more capable of reasoning about complex issues, distinguishing between facts and opinions, and seeing the world clearly as it is.
            • People who lack this quality tend to think in terms of black-and-white, and to have an arrogant and antagonistic attitude.
            • Fame is inversely correlated with integrative complexity
      • 11:29 The Big Sort by Bill Bishop

        • There is an ongoing trend, especially on the Internet, but also geographically, for people to cluster based on their own worldview, while they become less and less open to different ideas.
          • The content filtering mechanisms of Tumblr and other social media websites, where you can simply unfollow whoever you disagree with, are the reason why this phenomenon is so prevalent on the Internet.
  19. Sep 2016
  20. Apr 2016
    1. In Latin America, filmmakers have found a political conscience, and with it, touched a nerve at the box office. Films that deal with government and police corruption, corporate irresponsibility and economic inequality are hitting theaters, as well as bubbling up internationally at festivals

      Several Latin American directors have drawn international acclaim for their attempts to "deliver a more nuanced and ethically accurate portrayal" in their films of the aftermath of dictatorship and corruption.

  21. Dec 2015
  22. cityheiress.sfsuenglishdh.net cityheiress.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. To bless the King, and Royal Albany

      The king, and "Royal Albany" Behn references is James II of England, whose title was Duke of Albany, among many others. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to rule over the kingdoms of England, Ireland, and Scotland. He reigned from 1685 to 1688, when he was overthrown by the Glorious Revolution.

      Image Description

    2. Tory

      (With a capital T), a nickname given by the Exclusioners to those who opposed the exclusion of James, Duke of York (a Roman Catholic) from the succession to the Crown. (OED)

  23. cityheiress.sfsuenglishdh.net cityheiress.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. Whigs

      One of the two main political parties in England and Great Britian; Relates to the Exclusioners (1679) who were against James gaining the crown based off him being Roman Catholic (OED)

  24. cityheiress.sfsuenglishdh.net cityheiress.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. Magna Charta

      A charter of English liberties granted under King John on June 15, 1215 which held the sovereign accountable to the rule of law and documented the liberties held by “free men.” A code of laws. (Encyclopædia Britannica)

      Image Description

    2. Speech at the Election of a Burgess.

      A burgess is a person elected to represent citizens in a deliberate or legislative body (OED). It is unclear whether there is a historical record of this particular speech Sir Timothy Treat-All is referring to.

    3. Cavalier

      A term for a 17th century Royalist; “a name given to those who fought on the side of Charles I in the war between him and the Parliament” (OED).

  25. cityheiress.sfsuenglishdh.net cityheiress.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. Domestick Intelligence

      “Domestick Intelligence” refers to “Domestick Intelligence: Or News both from CIty and Country” an early local newspaper developed by Anti- Catholic, Pro-Whig publisher Benjamin Harris. In the context of this text, one in possesion of the “Domestick Intelligence” would have negative connotations placed upon him. (Wikipedia Online)

  26. Nov 2015
    1. According to Mark T. Mitchell, professor of political science at Patrick Henry College in Virginia: Gratitude is born of humility, for it acknowledges the giftedness of the creation and the benevolence of the Creator. This recognition gives birth to acts marked by attention and responsibility. Ingratitude, on the other hand, is marked by hubris, which denies the gift, and this always leads to inattention, irresponsibility, and abuse.
    1. Mbembe points out that often thefunction of awarding infrastructural projects has far more to do with gaining access to governmentcontracts and rewarding patron-client networks than it has to do with their technical function.This is why roads disappear, factories are built but never operated, and bridges go to nowhere.

      Sounds like scheming for political gains.. This is easy to see in the work place or society when one befriends another or joins a certain group for political/hierarchal benefits rather than for the pure purpose of the action. African societies cannot be the only ones who follow these functional implementations of these infrastructural projects.

    2. Infrastructures, for Collier, are amixture of political rationality, administrative techniques, and material systems, and his interest isnot in infrastructure per se but in what it tells us about practices of government. Soviet electricityprovision, through this lens, is analyzed for how it reveals a system of total planning in a commandeconomy rather than for what it tells us about the effects of electricity on users in Russia.

      It's never really about what is in front of us when it comes to politics.. there is always more to it.. His theory is a tool we could study to learn about a country/society's government by looking at the infrastructure they've created.

  27. Oct 2015
    1. This research shows there are low- and high-trust regions of the United States. Nevada is a very low-trust region. (Nobody seems to be very surprised by that.) Minnesota is a very high-trust region. The Deep South is a very low-trust region. We see similar disparities internationally. In Brazil, two percent of people say they trust other people. In Norway, 65 percent say they trust other people. So what are the characteristics of low-trust regions? Few people vote, parents and schools are less active. There’s less philanthropy in low-trust regions, greater crime of all kinds, lower longevity, worse health, lower academic achievement in schools.
  28. May 2015
    1. Wien-konkret.at ist ein politisch rechtes Onlinemagazin, dessen Geschäftsführer Obmann der EU-Austrittspartei ist (http://www.wien-konkret.at/k/impressum/, http://www.euaustrittspartei.at/internes/team/).

    2. Wien-konkret.at wird zu oft mit einem neutralen Stadt-Infoportal verwechselt. Tatsächlich verfolgt es (bzw. sein Geschäftsführer) politisch rechte Ziele. Auf Suchmaschinen sind Seiten dieses Magazins oft höher gereiht als entsprechende unabhängige Portale (wie z.B. http://www.wien.gv.at/) http://www.euaustrittspartei.at/internes/team/

  29. Mar 2014
    1. If, however,it is true that they are engaged in such activities and what you, O king, have heard has a basis in fact, then you can see how unwisely you acted when you forced me to leave the coast.

      Hdt. 5.106 Histiaios asks to be returned to Miletus under the pretense of securing the rebelling cities. While he himself was the one who told Aristagoras to revolt in the first place 498 BCE.

    2. he called before him Histiaeus the Milesian

      Hdt. 5.106 Darius confronts Histiaios about the rebellion of provinces started by Aristagoras in Miletus (Histaios' former governorship) 498 BCE.

    3. Artaphrenes, however, bade them receive Hippias back, if they wanted to be safe.

      Hdt. 5.96 Artaphrenes responds to the pleas of the Athenians with an ultimatum commanding the Athenians to take Hippias back as their tyrant, 500 BCE.

    4. While Hippias was engaged in these activities, the Athenians heard of it and sent messengers to Sardis, warning the Persians not to believe banished Athenians.

      Hdt. 5.96 Athenians sent a message to Artaphrenes in order to dissuade the Persians from believing or helping Athenian exiles (like Hippias), 500 BCE.

    5. but Hippias, having come from Lacedaemon into Asia, left no stone unturned, maligning the Athenians to Artaphrenes, and doing all he could to bring Athens into subjection to himself and Darius.

      Hdt. 5.96 Hippias, the deposed tyrant of Athens, seeks help in re-securing power in Athens from Artaphrenes, the governor of Sardis (half brother to Darius)

    6. Then, desiring to make an alliance with the Persians, they despatched envoys to Sardis, for they knew that they had provoked the Lacedaemonians and Cleomenes to war.

      Hdt. 5.73 The Athenians come to Sardis to speak to the Persians about becoming allies, -507 BCE. The reader sees the Achaemenids and their past members (current revoltees) being replaced as the active agents in the narrative. Herodotus now has the Athenians and Spartans (Hellenes) speaking for their own interests rather than being dominated by outside forces (Achaemenid or otherwise).

    7. It was in the reign of Cleomenes that Aristagoras the tyrant of Miletus came to Sparta.

      Hdt. 5.49 Aristagaros comes to Sparta to speak with Kleomenes to convince the Spartans to join in his revolt against Darius and the Achaemenids. He brings his famous world map as a prop and visual aid.

    8. With all these fears in his mind, he began to plan revolt, for it chanced that at that very time there came from Susa Histiaeus' messenger

      Hdt. 5.35 Histiaios sends a messenger to Aristagoras telling him to revolt against Darius (which nicely coincides with Aristagoras' desire to revolt against the Achaemenids since he can't pay back his loan form Artaphrenes and Darius).

    9. Aristagoras came to Sardis and told Artaphrenes that Naxos was indeed an island of no great size, but that it was otherwise a beautiful and noble island lying near Ionia. Furthermore it had a store of wealth and slaves. “Therefore send an army against that country,” he said, “and bring back the men who have been banished from there.

      Hdt. 5.31 After promising to help the Naxians re-gain control of their island, Aristagoras instead tells Artaphrenes (the governor of Sardis) to help him attack it and seize it's wealth. Artaphrenes agrees to attack Naxos provided that Darius approve the plan.

    10. When the Naxians came to Miletus, they asked Aristagoras if he could give them enough power to return to their own country.

      Hdt. 5.30 The Naxians approach Aristagoras (ruler of Miletus in leu of Histiaios) about securing their island [Naxos]. Aristagoras agrees to help them (but he's secretly scheming against the Naxian's interests).

    11. let nothing prevent you from coming to me so that I may inform you of certain great purposes which I have in mind.

      Hdt. 5.24 Influenced by the advice of Megabazos, Darius recalls Histiaios to Sardis under the suspicion that Histiaios is plotting a rebelling - fortifying his principate as the seat of his tyranny. Instead of punishing Histiaios outright or letting him continue ruling in Myrcinus Darius makes him part of his personal council. Adhering to the old maxim: keep your friends close and your possibly-duplicitous-generals even closer.

    12. Then Megabazus, having made the Paeonians captive, sent as messengers into Macedonia the seven Persians who (after himself) were the most honorable in his army. These were sent to Amyntas to demand earth and water for Darius the king.

      Hdt. 5.17 Megabazos, a proxy for Darius and the Achaemenid Empire, sends messengers to the Macedonians demanding their supplication. The messengers converse with Amyntas of Macedon.

  30. Feb 2014
    1. In addition to broad economic trends affecting domestic politics evenly, Fisher also notes the uneven distribution of effects stemming from intellectual property rights (1999, Sect. II. C.). The positive effects of intellectual property rights accrue strongl y to a small number of rights - holders (the paper assumes that there are no significant negative effects to rights - holders); for this reason, rights - holders have significant motive (and potentially greater means) to overcome the significant barriers to acti ve political lobbying.
  31. Oct 2013
    1. There are three kinds of rhetoric: A. political (deliberative), B. forensic (legal), and C. epideictic (the ceremonial oratory of display). Their (1) divisions, (2) times, and (3) ends are as follows: A. Political (1) exhortation and dehortation, (2) future, (3) expediency and inexpediency; B. Forensic (1) accusation and defence, (2) past, (3) justice and injustice; C. Epideictic (1) praise and censure, (2) present, (3) honour and dishonour.

      This is an interesting paragraph.

  32. Sep 2013
    1. For of the three elements in speech-making -- speaker, subject, and person addressed -- it is the last one, the hearer, that determines the speech's end and object. [1358b] The hearer must be either a judge, with a decision to make about things past or future, or an observer. A member of the assembly decides about future events, a juryman about past events: while those who merely decide on the orator's skill are observers. From this it follows that there are three divisions of oratory-(1) political, (2) forensic, and (3) the ceremonial oratory of display.

      I like how he divides these categories into past, present, and futures.

    1. The reason for this is that in political oratory there is less inducement to talk about nonessentials. Political oratory is less given to unscrupulous practices than forensic, because it treats of wider issues. In a political debate the man who is forming a judgement is making a decision about his own vital interests. There is no need, therefore, to prove anything except that the facts are what the supporter of a measure maintains they are. In forensic oratory this is not enough; to conciliate the listener is what pays here.

      Defines useful types of rhetoric for forensics vs. political arenas.

    1. The political speaker will find his powers of persuasion most of all enhanced by a knowledge of the four sorts of government -- democracy, oligarchy, aristocracy, monarchy, and their characteristic customs, institutions, and interests. Definition of the four sorts severally. Ends of each.

      Knowledge of government: tenants of political persuasion.

    2. The political speaker will also appeal to the interest of his hearers, and this involves a knowledge of what is good. Definition and analysis of things "good."

      Political appeal to interests. Things "good"

    3. In urging his hearers to take or to avoid a course of action, the political orator must show that he has an eye to their happiness. Four definitions (of a popular kind: as usual in the Rhetoric, and some fourteen constituents, of happiness.

      tenants of political oratory

    4. There are three kinds of rhetoric: A. political (deliberative), B. forensic (legal), and C. epideictic (the ceremonial oratory of display).

      divisions, or three kinds of rhetoric