116 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Résumé de la vidéo [00:00:06][^1^][1] - [00:28:48][^2^][2]:

      Gilles Deleuze discute de la nature créative du cinéma et de la philosophie, explorant ce que signifie avoir une idée dans chaque domaine. Il souligne que les idées sont rares et spécifiques à un domaine, et que la philosophie et le cinéma créent respectivement des concepts et des blocs de mouvement-temps. Deleuze examine également la relation entre l'art et la résistance, ainsi que l'impact de la société de contrôle sur la communication.

      Points forts: + [00:00:06][^3^][3] La nature de l'acte créatif * Deleuze interroge la création en cinéma et en philosophie * Il définit les idées comme des événements rares et domaines-spécifiques * La philosophie crée des concepts, tandis que le cinéma crée des blocs de mouvement-temps + [00:04:18][^4^][4] La nécessité en création * La création nécessite une impulsion, pas seulement une intention * Deleuze compare la création de concepts en philosophie à la création en cinéma * Il souligne l'importance de l'invention et de la création dans toutes les disciplines + [00:07:07][^5^][5] L'espace-temps comme limite commune * Toutes les disciplines créatives communiquent via la constitution de l'espace-temps * Deleuze utilise l'exemple de l'espace dans les films de Robert Bresson * Il discute de la connexion manuelle dans l'espace cinématographique + [00:10:08][^6^][6] La résistance et l'art * L'acte de résistance a deux visages : humain et artistique * Seuls la résistance et l'art résistent à la mort * Deleuze évoque la relation mystérieuse entre la lutte humaine et l'œuvre d'art + [00:17:01][^7^][7] Les idées en cinéma * Les idées cinématographiques sont engagées dans un processus cinématographique * Deleuze donne des exemples d'idées cinématographiques, comme la dissociation entre voir et parler * Il parle de l'importance de l'idée dans la transformation des éléments du cinéma + [00:23:05][^8^][8] La société de contrôle et la communication * Deleuze critique la notion de communication comme propagation d'informations * Il discute de l'évolution des sociétés disciplinaires vers les sociétés de contrôle * Il souligne que l'information est un système de contrôle et que la résistance est nécessaire

  2. May 2024
    1. allez construire, brique par brique, le site professionnel d’un personnage fictif

      J'espérais carrément commencer par moi qui a besoin d'un site sur mesure qui se détache du lot. Je pense changer de métier, c'est pourquoi je suis ici mais je débarque du métier, justement, de la photo... J'avoue que je vais constemment doubler mon regard afin de faire mon propre site en parallèle à moins que ce ne soit tout simplement pas possible dans le cadre du cours. Ce serait dommage... pourquoi ne pas nous lancer carrément sur notre propre création pour nous-mêmes par le biais de ces exercies. Nous sommes censés savoir le faire à la fin du cours, non ?

    1. It is clear thatthis approach will bring some benefits

      Namely, less metadata.

      Perhaps it could be mitigated via metadata compaction on sync and snapshots to garbage-collect history.

  3. Apr 2024
  4. Mar 2024
    1. By 1700, we should note, slaves comprised half the population of thesouthern portion of the Carolina colony, an imbalance that widened to 72percent by 1740. Beginning in 1714, a series of laws required that for everysix slaves an owner purchased, he had to acquire one white servant.Lamenting that the “white population do not proportionally multiply,”South Carolina lawmakers had one more reason to wish that a corps ofLeet-men and women had actually been formed. Encouraged to marry andmultiply, tied to the land, they might have provided a racial and class barrierbetween the slaves and the landed elites.13
    1. Likewise, we “trusted the process,” but the process didn’t save Toy Story 2 either. “Trust theProcess” had morphed into “Assume that the Process Will Fix Things for Us.” It gave ussolace, which we felt we needed. But it also coaxed us into letting down our guard and, in theend, made us passive. Even worse, it made us sloppy.

      One could consider the simplicity of ars excerpendi/zettelkasten against the phrase "trust the process", and this is fine for some of the lower level collecting methods, but one needs to be careful not to fall trap to the complacency of only collecting and not using the collection to actively create.

      Many people rely too much on the collection portion of the process and don't put any work into the use or creation portions. They may be left wondering what the ultimate value is of their unused collection of treasure.

  5. Sep 2023
  6. Aug 2023
    1. You share in responsibility in maintaining this relationship and it is apartnership that relies on both parties being proactive within thetransaction. Yet again you will have to be the initiator and strategicallyprovide content that allows for high personalisation, when the contentallows for continued engagement satisfaction will be raised and they willkeep returning for this interaction.

      building the relationship between you and audience

    2. The content thatyou create needs to be valuable,engaging with your coreconsumer is all aboutdeepening the relationshipbetween your brand/businessand the consumer

      valuable content

    3. Target AudienceYour target audience consists of the individuals who have yet to buy intoyour brand, these individuals are the people who all your content is initiallyaimed at. The ultimate goal is successfully engaging/converting them tobecome your core consumer audience; crossing this divide will allow you tocreate that legacy brand or business through your influential content.

      target audience

    4. This area of study can assist in gauging all of your conversion points insideyour social media system: post conversion, profile conversion, websiteconversion, etc.

      you have to convert

    5. The smart influencer would realise this is only disruptive toyour success if you don’t know how to capitalise on the moment, you haveto be able to quickly adapt your planned content to cater for this organiccontent creating moment by leveraging on these current topics andincorporating global issues into your brand or businesses posting activity asit affects your various audiences.

      following the current

    6. Caching content helps you to always be ready to stimulate your audience,you never want to be in a place of content scarcity; this demonstrates aninability to fulfil the supply and demand expectation!

      vaulted content

    7. The competitive spirit thatyou can leverage on is more so gamifying your content creating a niceenvironment for consumers to enjoy your content from a different stimulatingpoint

      gameify content instead of competing

    8. Always try to have regularity with your contentas it will allow you to become a part of the consumer’s lifestyle, they willdevelop an awareness of your posting pattern providing them with aroutine they can work with. Frequent content allows you to have moreopportunities to interact with the consumer. Understanding the importanceof being consistent will help you boost your influencing power. Your contentwill be a present trigger within the consumer’s mind, creating a pattern ofassociation between your content and the consumer’s virtual lifestyle.

      the power of consistency

    9. If you are struggling to find people who can be in your team, collaboratingis the best option. You won’t have authority over their workload but you willbe able to rely on them to work with you, helping you as you fulfil yourpromise to help them.

      collaboration is a must

    10. When big news stories are capturing the public's attention, this is a greatopportunity to connect emotionally with them. There is no need to conformto the majority’s way of thinking; instead you can position yourself as athought leader by being truthful in your expression and conveying yourbeliefs in a way that still allows people to connect with you even if theyhave a different perspective.

      big news and opportunities to connect with audience

    11. If you were to do a current affairs post on Martin Luther King Jr day aboutMLK, you would most likely mention words such as black history, civil rightsetc. These content specific words help people get a first glimpse of whatthe content will be referring to.

      Semantic fields

    12. Captions help control the perception, they fill in the blanks that shortform content may not allow for; they help you explain what the widerdiscussion is, allowing for people to be informed when responding. Thisis especially useful when discussing sensitive or complex topics as itcreates context for the content.

      captions in content creation

    13. Your contentneeds to be deeply satisfying evoking the correct range of emotions thatpeople seek to experience when they initially seek out content.

      emotions

    14. Your branding across all your social networking platforms should embracethe specific influencer culture that you want your audiences to tap into; thiswill expose your audience to parallel experiences across your platforms.People will be able to perceive the greater value added by beingintertwined with your online community.

      culture of influencer

    15. Good brand engagement for any influencer should result in twoway communication whereby the audience actively responds to thecontent you are creating for them; ideally with content of their own that iscentered around you or your product (video reviews/testimonials forinstance).

      the audience communication with you

    16. each platform demands it’sown formatting and optimizing to perform well with your audience

      platform specific content curation

    17. Make sure that the content you create is something you’d want to be inyour legacy...because it is!

      its my legacy

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    Annotators

  7. Jun 2023
    1. Only Stravinsky and Milhaud were able to use these new resources in such a way as to give rise to great works of art. Stravinsky concentrated on the rhythmic possibilities of the music, whereas Milhaud was attracted more to its "inner voice," especially the expressive potential of its instrumenta-tion, in particular the eloquent use of percussion. Excerpts from the above-mentioned chapter of his Etudes help us to follow the genesis of La creation du monde: Their primitive African herita~e still remains deeply anchored in the souls of Amencan Negroes, and thereto lies the source of their formidable sense of rhythm as well as their profoundly moving gift for a kind of melody that only people who have been long oppressed know how to utter. The first examples of Negro music were spirituals, religious songs sung by slaves and based on popular tradition. These songs have the same sort of melodies as are found in, for example, W. C. Handy's "Saint-Louis Blues" .... All have the same ten-derness, sadness, and profession of faith as do songs like "Go Down Moses," in which the slaves compared their fate to that of the Jews in bondage in Egypt and cried out to Moses to save them. Such reflections by Milhaud already indicate that his use of jazz ele-ments in La creation du monde was anything but superficial. But let us continue to read what he says about his choice of instruments: In addition to their dance music, with its unique improvisational quality, the Blacks also adapt jazz to theatrical spectacle in a most felicitous manner. ... In Liz a, an operetta by Mr. Maceo Pinkard, the orchestra consists of a flute, a clarinet, two trumpets, a trombone, an assortment of percussion instruments all handled by one player, a piano, a string quartet in which the viola is re-placed by a saxophone, and a double bass .... Moreover, Black jazz is far removed from the slick sophistication of so much contemporary American dance music. It never loses its primitive African character; the intensity and repetitiousness of the rhythms and melodies produce a tragic, desperate ef-fect. And it is this capacity to arouse deep emotions in its listeners that puts it in the same category as the greatest works of art.
  8. May 2023
    1. Wittgenstein, Luhmann, Conrad Gessner, Leibniz, Linnaeus and Walter Benjamin are some I can think of off the top of my head.

      reply to u/muhlfriedl by way of reply to u/chounosumuheya at https://www.reddit.com/r/Zettelkasten/comments/13s6dsg/comment/jlpt8ai/?utm_source=reddit&utm_medium=web2x&context=3

      Examples of zettelkasten users

      S.D. Goitein, Beatrice Webb, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Harold Innis, Victor Margolin, Eminem, Aby Warburg, Antonin Sertillanges, Jacques Barzun, C. Wright Mills, Gotthard Deutsch, Roland Barthes, Umberto Eco, Vladimir Nabokov, Gerald Weinberg, Michael Ende, Twyla Tharp, Hans Blumenberg, Keith Thomas, Arno Schmidt, Mario Bunge, Sönke Ahrens, Dan Allosso for a few more. If you go with those who used commonplace books and waste books, which are notebook-based instead of index card-based, there are thousands upon thousands more.

      Historically the easier question might be: what creators didn't use one of these systems and was successful?!? The broad outlines of these methods go back much, much farther than Niklas Luhmann. These patterns are not new...

      Personally, I've used my own slip box to write large portions of the articles on my website. I also queried it to compile this reply.

    1. people are great at the collecting and categorizing pieces, but we're less good at going back in and connecting or expressing and this is where the value increases exponentially

  9. Mar 2023
    1. We create product not to show how good we are, but to measure how good we are.

      We create product not to show how good we are, but to measure how good we are.

      — Naval (@naval) February 19, 2023
      <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
  10. Feb 2023
  11. Jan 2023
    1. it's what i write about and that is why what  is it that has created this uh uh disparity   and why is it widened so much since 1980. well  the most obvious reason is uh interest rates   reached a peak of 20 in uh 1980 and they've gone  down ever since well in the late 1970s uh my old   00:16:50 boss's boss at chase manhattan paul volcker  said let's raise interest rates to very high   because the 99 are getting too much income their  wages are going up let's uh raise interest to slow   the economy and that will prevent wages from going  up and he did and that was a large uh reason why   carter lost the the election to ronald reagan  interest rates then went down from 20 to almost 0   00:17:20 today the result was the largest bond market boom  in history bonds went way up in price the economy   was flooded with bank credit and most of this  credit uh apart from going into the bond market   went into real estate and there is a uh symbiosis  between finance and real estate and also between   finance and raw materials and also like oil and  gas and minerals uh extraction natural resource   00:17:48 rent land rent and also monopoly rent and most of  the monopoly rent has come from the privatization   that you had from ronald reagan margaret thatcher  and the whole neoliberalism uh if you look at how   did this one percent get most of its wealth well  if you look at the forbes list of the billionaires   in almost every country they got wealth in  the old-fashioned way from taking it from   00:18:13 the public domain in other words privatization  you have the largest privatization and transfer   of wealth from the public sector to uh the private  sector and specifically to the financial sector uh   in in history uh sell-offs and all of a sudden  instead of uh infrastructure uh public health uh   other uh basic needs being provided at subsidized  rates to the population you have uh privatized   00:18:41 owners uh financed by the banks raising the rates  to whatever rate they can get without any market   firing power uh in the united states the  government is not even allowed to bargain with   the pharmaceutical companies for the drug prices  so there's been a huge monopolization a huge   privatization a huge flooding of the economy with  credit and one person's credit is somebody else's   00:19:11 uh debt so you you've described the one percent's  wealth in the form of uh savings but uh i focus   on the other side of the balance sheet this one  percent finds its counterpart in the debts of the   99 so the one percent has got wealthy by indebting  the 99 uh for housing that is soared in price 20   00:19:37 uh just in the last year in the united states uh  for medical care for uh utilities for education   uh the economy is being forced increasingly  into debt and how how can one uh solve this   taxation will not be enough the only way  that you can uh actually reverse this uh   concentration of wealth is to begin wiping out uh  the debt if you leave the debt in place of the 99   00:20:10 uh then uh you're going to leave the one percent  savings all in place uh and these savings are   largely tax exempt uh so basically i think you  you uh left out the government's role in this   wealth creation of the one percent so your  finance has indeed grown faster than economy   absorbed real estate into the finance insurance  and real estate sector the fire sector finances   00:20:39 absorb the oil industry the mining industry  and it's absorbed most of the government so the   financial wealth has spilled over to become  essentially the economy's central planner   it's not planned in washington or paris or london  it's planned in wall street the city of london   and the paris ports the economy is being managed  financially and the object of financial management   00:21:04 isn't really to make money it's capital gains  and again as your statistics point out capital   gains are really what explains the increase  in wealth you don't get rich by saving the   income rent is for paying interest income is for  paying interest you get rich off the government   basically subsidizing an enormous increase in the  value of stocks the value of bonds by the central   00:21:31 banks which have been privatized and uh the reason  that this is occurring is that uh the largest   public utility of all money creation and banking  is left in private hands and private banking   in the west is very different from what government  banking is in say china

      !- Michael Hudson : Wealth is created in the 1% through privatization and loss of the 99% - Largest transfer of wealth in history from the public sector to the private sector, especially through financial sector - govt fire sale of public infrastructure - credit was created and invested in the biggest bon market boom in history - many of Forbes billionaires got rich through such privatization - the 1% got wealthy by indebting the 99% through privatization all around the globe - this was the effect of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher's neoliberal policies - taxation alone is not sufficient to reverse this wealth concentration, the debt has to be completely wiped out

      !- key statement : the elite get rich off the government subsidizing an enormous increase in the value of stocks the value of bonds by the central bank which have been privatized. The reason THAT is happening is because the largest public utility of all, money creation and central banking has been privatized.

    2. as long as you leave banking and credit in   private hands you're going to have banks trading  their product debt and the more debt they create   the more debt service that the borrowers the 99  have to pay the banks in order to obtain a house   00:22:54 or an education or medical care or just to break  even and the more money they pay to the financial   sector the less they have to pay for goods and  services so as the economy polarizes between the 1   and the 99 the economy as a whole shrinks because  more and more of its income is spent not on   production uh and consumption it's spent just on  bit service

      !- Michael Hudson : private banks maximizing debt is the goal - creating lots of loans to create lots of debt is the best way for the private banks to make money - it means the 99% spend all their efforts servicing the debt

  12. Dec 2022
    1. For example I had a few notes on principles of modern cryptography that came in handy when I had to write a paper about a related topic for my studies. But these cases were rare at best, most of these notes were never looked at again.

      The one shining moment in the whole essay and they don't seem to realize where the benefit or use actually was. They finally had a reason to have taken notes and the ideas shone here. But they've written off the tools because they didn't understand when to use them.

      Hammers are cool, but unless you're a professional carpenter, you don't carry it around all the time and use it constantly to hammer things. The same is true of note taking as a tool. You might use it regularly if you're a writer or an academic perhaps, but for hourly use in your day-to-day? Almost definitely not.

  13. Nov 2022
    1. And this is the art-the skill or craftthat we are talking about here.

      We don't talk about the art of reading or the art of note making often enough as a goal to which students might aspire. It's too often framed as a set of rules and an mechanical process rather than a road to producing interesting, inspiring, or insightful content that can change humanity.

  14. Oct 2022
    1. the writer of "scissors and paste history" ;

      One cannot excerpt their way into knowledge, simply cutting and pasting one's way through life is useless. Your notes may temporarily serve you, but unless you apply judgement and reason to them to create something new, they will remain a scrapheap for future generations who will gain no wisdom or use from your efforts.

      relate to: notes about notes being only useful to their creator

  15. Jul 2022
    1. But it's not a trivial problem. I have compiled, at latest reckoning, 35,669 posts - my version of a Zettelkasten. But how to use them when writing a paper? It's not straightforward - and I find myself typically looking outside my own notes to do searches on Google and elsewhere. So how is my own Zettel useful? For me, the magic happens in the creation, not in the subsequent use. They become grist for pattern recognition. I don't find value in classifying them or categorizing them (except for historical purposes, to create a chronology of some concept over time), but by linking them intuitively to form overarching themes or concepts not actually contained in the resources themselves. But this my brain does, not my software. Then I write a paper (or an outline) based on those themes (usually at the prompt of an interview, speaking or paper invitation) and then I flesh out the paper by doing a much wider search, and not just my limited collection of resources.

      Stephen Downes describes some of his note taking process for creation here. He doesn't actively reuse his notes (or in this case blog posts, bookmarks, etc.) which number a sizeable 35669, directly, at least in the sort of cut and paste method suggested by Sönke Ahrens. Rather he follows a sort of broad idea, outline creation, and search plan akin to that described by Cory Doctorow in 20 years a blogger

      Link to: - https://hyp.is/_XgTCm9GEeyn4Dv6eR9ypw/pluralistic.net/2021/01/13/two-decades/


      Downes suggests that the "magic happens in the creation" of his notes. He uses them as "grist for pattern recognition". He doesn't mention words like surprise or serendipity coming from his notes by linking them, though he does use them "intuitively to form overarching themes or concepts not actually contained in the resources themselves." This is closely akin to the broader ideas ensconced in inventio, Llullan Wheels, triangle thinking, ideas have sex, combinatorial creativity, serendipity (Luhmann), insight, etc. which have been described by others.


      Note that Downes indicates that his brain creates the links and he doesn't rely on his software to do this. The break is compounded by the fact that he doesn't find value in classifying or categorizing his notes.


      I appreciate that Downes uses the word "grist" to describe part of his note taking practice which evokes the idea of grinding up complex ideas (the grain) to sort out the portions of the whole to find simpler ideas (the flour) which one might use later to combine to make new ideas (bread, cake, etc.) Similar analogies might be had in the grain harvesting space including winnowing or threshing.

      One can compare this use of a grist mill analogy of thinking with the analogy of the crucible, which implies a chamber or space in which elements are brought together often with work or extreme conditions to create new products by their combination.

      Of course these also follow the older classical analogy of imitating the bees (apes).

    1. The 1,000 True Fans theory is classic Kevin Kelly. He took something potentially dark—in this case, a long-tail economic model that mashes creatives like a digital-age ore crusher—and found an aspirational alternative narrative.
  16. Jun 2022
  17. May 2022
    1. What does it look like to move from mindless consumption tomindful creation?

      Collecting ideas and creating links between them in a zettelkasten can seemingly solve this problem with "little" work. :)

    2. All these actions—evaluate, share, teach, record, post, and lobby*—are synonyms for the act of expression
    3. Informationbecomes knowledge—personal, embodied, verified—only when weput it to use. You gain confidence in what you know only when youknow that it works. Until you do, it’s just a theory.

      motivational...

    4. I had discovered somethingvery special

      Notice the creation myth being born here? Does he really believe that no one has noticed this before?

      What about all the handbook writers who encouraged commonplacing in the 1500s, much less their predecessors?

  18. Apr 2022
    1. Highly recommended by:

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Soren Bjornstad </span> in Rules for Designing Precise Anki Cards - Control-Alt-Backspace (<time class='dt-published'>03/21/2022 05:21:46</time>)</cite></small>

    1. A word of warning before you go import-crazy, though: cards you create yourself are invariably better than cards you import, even if the person who shared them is a spaced-repetition expert (which they usually are not). The act of making the cards helps you learn them, plus you won’t be creating any cards that you don’t care about, and you can use personal references on them. Further, importing large quantities of cards often tempts you to try to memorize information you don’t fully understand, which can waste immense amounts of time. That probably sounds like such a dumb idea you would never do it, but it’s so common I guarantee you’ve done it at some point in your life – it’s surprisingly difficult to notice it’s happening.

      The best space repetition decks are ones the learner has created for themselves. Creating the cards yourself will act as a first layer of repetition, but it will help you fashion them in your own words and in a way that best dovetails how the information fits into your scaffold of existing information. By creating your own cards, you're more likely to do so for information you're most interested in . Importing cards from others defeats these benefits and increases the likelihood that you'll create a mound of material that is both uninteresting as well as material one doesn't have pre-existing scaffolding for.

  19. Mar 2022
    1. Critical approaches are essential. I believe we must support faculty and students by working broadly and collaboratively in three key areas: developing digital literacies and digital capabilities;10 specifically supporting individuals in navigating tensions between privacy and openness; and, most critically, reflecting on the role of higher education and the roles of and relationships between educators and students in an increasingly open and networked society.

      The three key areas of work need to be incorporated into OERs via OEPs. OEPs, then, are pursued by staff and students alike (akin to a negotiated or co-created curriculum). A negotiated or co-created curriculum will work well at certain levels (senior undergraduate, postgraduate, faculty), perhaps less well at entry level? Nevertheless, a focus on learning-to-learn for staff and students at all levels would allow all to move towards a negotiated or co-created curriculum. The major caveat is that professionally accredited degrees will have to carefully scaffold negotiated or co-created curriculae so that they comply with the professionally accreditation requirements.

    1. Each highlighted statement expresses political talking points aligned to induce trump-like support.

      Trump introduced new marketing and strategy, formulated using concepts and metrics mastered by Reality TV and Hollywood and then paired with advertising propaganda and "selling" techniques to create a "Brand". This is after-all Donald Trump, this is what he does, has done and is the only way he has found to make money. Trump built the "brand" (just barely) while teetering on self destruction.

      His charismatic persona became "the glue" that allowed creative narratives to stick to certain types of people in-spite of risk. Trump learned OTJ how to capture a specific type of audience.

      The mistake people make about Trump is assuming his audience to be "Joe Six-Pack", redneck's with limited education! This assumption does not have merit on its own.<br /> * There is a common "follower" theme among his audience that is exploited by those who: * Bought the "licensing rights" to the master-class Trump "how-to" course.

  20. Feb 2022
    1. he idea that nobody ever startsfrom scratch suddenly becomes very concrete. If we take it seriouslyand work accordingly, we literally never have to start from scratchagain.

      Proper note taking provides one with a permanent fount of interesting and exciting ideas to work on.

    1. Newsletters are an imperfect antidote to that, allowing writers a closer relationship with a more focused audience.

      The ultimate value of newsletters is their more direct connection to a specific niche audience for which they curate news or content. The value they provide readers is as a filter of their area with some some useful analysis and perspective.

  21. Dec 2021
    1. The possibility of arbitrary internal branching.

      Modern digital zettelkasten don't force the same sort of digital internal branching process that is described by Niklas Luhmann. Internal branching in these contexts is wholly reliant on the user to create it.

      Many digital systems will create a concrete identifier to fix the idea within the system, but this runs the risk of ending up with a useless scrap heap.

      Some modern systems provide the ability for one to add taxonomies like subject headings in a commonplace book tradition, which adds some level of linking. But if we take the fact that well interlinked cards are the most valuable in such a system then creating several links upfront may be a bit more work, but it provides more value in the long run.

      Upfront links also don't require quite as much work at the card's initial creation as the creator already has the broader context of the idea. Creating links at a future date requires the reloading into their working memory of the card's idea and broader context.

      Of course there may also be side benefits (including to memory) brought by the spaced repetition of the card's ideas as well as potential new contexts gained in the interim which may help add previously unconsidered links.

      It can certainly be possible that at some level of linking, there is a law of diminishing returns the decreases the value of a card and its idea.

      One of the benefits of physical card systems like Luhmann's is that the user is forced to add the card somewhere, thus making the first link of the idea into the system. Luhmann's system in particular creates a parent/sibling relation to other cards or starts a brand new branch.

    2. The fixed filing place needs no system. It is sufficient that we give every slip a number which is easily seen (in or case on the left of the first line) and that we never change this number and thus the fixed place of the slip. This decision about structure is that reduction of the complexity of possible arrangements, which makes possible the creation of high complexity in the card file and thus makes possible its ability to communicate in the first place.

      There's an interesting analogy between Niklas Luhmann's zettelkasten numbering system and the early street address system in Vienna. Just as people (often) have a fixed address, they're able to leave it temporarily and mix with other people before going back home every night. The same is true with his index cards. Without the ability to remove cards and remix them in various orders, the system has far less complexity and simultaneously far less value.

      Link to reference of street addressing systems of Vienna quoted by Markus Krajewski in (chapter 3 of) Paper Machines.


      Both the stability and the occasional complexity of the system give it tremendous value.

      How is this linked to the idea that some of the most interesting things within systems happen at the edges of the system which have the most complexity? Cards that sit idly have less value for their stability while cards at the edges that move around the most and interact with other cards and ideas provide the most value.

      Graph this out on a multi-axis drawing. Is the relationship linear, non-linear, exponential? What is the relationship of this movement to the links between cards? Is it essentially the same (particularly in digital settings) as movement?

      Are links (and the active creation thereof) between cards the equivalent of communication?

  22. Nov 2021
    1. Like Creation stories every where, cosmologies are a source of identity and orientation to the world. They tell us who we are. We are inevitably shaped by them no matter how distant they may be from our consciousness. One story leads to the generous embrace of the living world, the other to banish-ment. One woman is our ancestral gardener, a cocreator of the good green world that would be the home of her descendants. The other was an exile, just passing through an alien world on a rough road to her real home in heaven.
    1. The Ouroboros is a Greek word meaning “tail devourer,” and is one of the oldest mystical symbols in the world. It can be perceived as enveloping itself, where the past (the tail) appears to disappear but really moves into an inner domain or reality, vanishing from view but still existing.

      Mark Smith asked me if I was familiar with the term ouroboros. I replied, “No.” So he sent me this link.

      This symbolizes the cyclic Nature of the Universe: creation out of destruction, Life out of Death.

  23. Sep 2021
    1. The book, This is Service Design Doing, includes journey maps as a method for participatory design and co-creation workshops.

      I suggested to the Stop Reset Go team that we should map out the interactions and touch points to engage people with the process of bottom-up whole system change.

    1. ERC20 Token Development Company

      WeAlwin Technologies - Leading ERC20 token development company that offers complete ethereum token development services on ERC20, ERC223, ERC721, ERC777 standards. Create your own erc20 token with the help of our experts.

  24. Jul 2021
  25. Apr 2021
    1. is the fear of putting our work out there in the world.

      Sometimes creation is for us, I think, and sometimes things need to be out. How do we know which are private and which iarefor the world?

  26. Mar 2021
    1. On the internet, the lines between the sender and receiver are increasingly blurred.

      This is certainly a defining characteristic that differentiates the internet from previous mediums of mass communication. Consider the process by which a reader or viewer would share their opinion about a story or a show in the pre-internet era?

  27. Feb 2021
  28. Oct 2020
    1. The Learning Continuum Formal and Informal Learning Experiences - Enabling Learning and Creation of New Knowledge in an Organization.

      Amitabh, A., & Sinha, S. (2012). The Learning Continuum Formal and Informal Learning Experiences - Enabling Learning and Creation of New Knowledge in an Organization. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, 5(2), 10–14. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijac.v5i2.2111

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eue&AN=76422894&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      Over the years, there has been a significant shift in the approach towards 'learning' in an organization. The focus of learning is no more limited to only the formal training mediums, such as classroom interventions and elearning programs. The shift in learning paradigm is more towards the creation of new learning solution that provides formal and informal learning, information and collaboration - thereby enabling the formation of a 'personal learning environment.' Now, there is a shift from 'content focus' to 'learner focus' education. This paper will suggest the appropriate use of technologies and processes to create a rich learning environment that includes a broad array of instructions, information resources, and collaborative solutions. The paper will also focus on the areas or situations where the new learning environment can be applied and the ways in which an organization can leverage the full range of its learning continuum.

      8/10

    1. The Learning Continuum Formal and Informal Learning Experiences - Enabling Learning and Creation of New Knowledge in an Organization.

      Amitabh, A., & Sinha, S. (2012). The Learning Continuum Formal and Informal Learning Experiences - Enabling Learning and Creation of New Knowledge in an Organization. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, 5(2), 10–14. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijac.v5i2.2111

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eue&AN=76422894&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      Over the years, there has been a significant shift in the approach towards 'learning' in an organization. The focus of learning is no more limited to only the formal training mediums, such as classroom interventions and elearning programs. The shift in learning paradigm is more towards the creation of new learning solution that provides formal and informal learning, information and collaboration - thereby enabling the formation of a 'personal learning environment.' Now, there is a shift from 'content focus' to 'learner focus' education. This paper will suggest the appropriate use of technologies and processes to create a rich learning environment that includes a broad array of instructions, information resources, and collaborative solutions. The paper will also focus on the areas or situations where the new learning environment can be applied and the ways in which an organization can leverage the full range of its learning continuum.

      7/10

  29. Sep 2020
    1. They might even hate each other; the creature who already lived loathed his own deformity, and might he not conceive a greater abhorrence for it when it came before his eyes in the female form? She also might turn with disgust from him to the superior beauty of man; she might quit him, and he be again alone, exasperated by the fresh provocation of being deserted by one of his own species.

      A lot of misogyny is radiating from these lines. Victor is implying that his female creation might be so ugly that even his male creation will be offended by her existence one he sees her. But on the other hand, what if his creation isn't her type and just abandon's him? It's interesting to see how much thought Victor puts in when it comes to making a female creation...I thought he was trying to create a new species?

  30. Aug 2020
  31. Jul 2020
    1. O’Connor, D. B., Aggleton, J. P., Chakrabarti, B., Cooper, C. L., Creswell, C., Dunsmuir, S., Fiske, S. T., Gathercole, S., Gough, B., Ireland, J. L., Jones, M. V., Jowett, A., Kagan, C., Karanika‐Murray, M., Kaye, L. K., Kumari, V., Lewandowsky, S., Lightman, S., Malpass, D., … Armitage, C. J. (n.d.). Research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond: A call to action for psychological science. British Journal of Psychology, n/a(n/a), e12468. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12468

  32. Jun 2020
  33. May 2020
  34. Apr 2020
  35. Dec 2019
    1. Such were the professor’s words—rather let me say such the words of fate, enounced to destroy me. As he went on, I felt as if my soul were grappling with a palpable enemy; one by one the various keys were touched which formed the mechanism of my being: chord after chord was sounded, and soon my mind was filled with one thought, one conception, one purpose. So much has been done, exclaimed the soul of Frankenstein,—more, far more, will I achieve: treading in the steps already marked, I will pioneer a new way, explore unknown powers, and unfold to the world the deepest mysteries of creation. I closed not my eyes that night. My internal being was in a state of insurrection and turmoil; I felt that order would thence arise, but I had no power to produce it. By degrees, after the morning’s dawn, sleep came. I awoke, and my yesternight’s thoughts were as a dream. There only 35remained a resolution to return to my ancient studies, and to devote myself to a science for which I believed myself to possess a natural talent. On the same day, I paid M. Waldman a visit.

      In this lengthy addition to 1831, Victor experiences an early flash of ruinous ambition during the chemistry lecture by M. Waldman. The new picture of Waldman as an evil force belongs to a pattern of provoking suspicion about scientific education in the 1831 edition that did not appear in the 1818.

    1. German stories of ghosts,

      These German ghost stories were translated into French for the book Mary, Percy, and Byron read during the summer; its French title was Fantasmagoria; ou Recueil d'Histoires, d'Apparitions, de Spectres, Revenans, Fantomes, etc., translated by Jean-Baptiste Benoit Eyries in 1812.

  36. Nov 2019
    1. La lecture représente parfois un point de départ, un catalyseur pour la création – et donc une porte vers l’ouverture :

      […] l’exaltation qui suit certaines lectures ait une influence propice sur le travail personnel, on cite plus d’un écrivain qui aimait à lire une belle page avant de se mettre au travail. Emerson commençait rarement à écrire sans <mark>relire quelques pages de Platon</mark>. Et Dante n’est pas le seul poète que Virgile ait conduit jusqu’au seuil du paradis. (p. 180)

    1. « Essayons cette nouvelle technologie et voyons ce qui arrive ».

      Castellucci, contrairement à d’autres puristes, n’a pas peur d’adopter – presque aveuglément! – les nouvelles technologies dans sa pratique.

    2. Je veux utiliser cette photo, peu importe comment.

      Travailler à partir d’un matériau (ici, une photo).

  37. Sep 2019
    1. so byinsisting that the poetic impulse could not be fulfilled unless the sexualimpulse was repressed, Milton was in effect creating an equivalence betweenthem.

      This sounds very similar to how many some people today believe that as both are an act of creation, there are some similarities between writing and reproduction from a certain philosophical point of view.

  38. Jul 2019
    1. . She identified that in order to “identify, in textual terms, how the Internet mediates the representation of knowledge, the framing of entertainment, and the conduct of communication”, our understanding of construction and creation needs to be broad enough to allow for change in the future. I believe that viewing the work as construction and more expansive that just creation allows for this eventuality.

      OCC and allowing content to be able to change and evolve in the future

  39. Apr 2019
    1. How does having diverse members in a group increase the critical thinking of the group?

      It is just as important to define concepts as it is to identify them. For example, diversity will actually mean different things in different circumstances. This is a subtle but important distinction- you must have a clear (if not absolute) definition of a cncept before you begin to research it.

    1. Evidence to win a bet with a rival in the dorm.

      What are the stakes? Money? Bragging rights? Public humiliation for the loser? The secrets of creation? (I have a sneaking suspicion that this will not be considered, considered a substantive annotation, so I will make an extra).

    1. Only one version of the truth is presented about controversial issues.

      Very important. You can create a false impression easily simply by omitting information, as opposed to outright lying. The "sin of omission" is a huge and often unrecognized problem in researching information. If you know there is another side, please gather information about it. Ideally, study until you can understand why your opponents feel the way they do.

  40. Feb 2019
  41. Jan 2019
  42. Nov 2018
    1. How To Create A Mobile App in 10 Easy Steps

      Buildfire is a site that presents how to create a mobile app in 10 easy steps. Site is easy to read and use.

      RATING: 4/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

    1. It may be a small designation to make, but I see a great deal of difference between the act of creation, and the sustained, informed, evaluative elements embedded in construction.

      I do see the distinction between construction and creation but I also see how they easily and usually work hand in hand. I think when helping students use the web and technology to guide and scaffold learning both should be included.

  43. Aug 2018
    1. Not equal, as thir sex not equal seemd;

      I suspect that this is referring to what Milton wrote earlier about Eve being created to serve Adam, or to the inaccurate translation saying that Eve was created from Adam's rib. But note the many articles (as well as contemporary translations of Genesis, such as Mary Korsak's At the Start: Genesis Made New - see http://www.maryphilkorsak.com/1publiceng.html ) that note that the Hebrew word for RIB is the same as the word for SIDE, and that word is used throughout the old and New Testament to mean SIDE, never rib. So there is no reason - except patriarchal reasons seeking to justify male superiority - to believe that this one use of the word in Genesis is an exception to use of the word elsewhere in the Bible. According to one of the stories of Eve's creation in the Bible, she was created from Adam's side and may indeed be from half of Adam; according to the other story of creation in Genesis - and there are two - Adam and Eve were created together.

  44. Jun 2018
    1. And the fourth concerns the idea of the adjacent possible. It just may be the case that biospheres on average keep expanding into the adjacent possible. By doing so they increase the diversity of what can happen next. It may be that biospheres, as a secular trend, maximize the rate of exploration of the adjacent possible.

      For biospheres (as autonomous agents): expanding into the adjacent possible, at a maximized but secure rate, will put them in an advantage in evolution.

      For an idea (in Popperian World 3): knowing its 'genes' and the boundary it operates within leads to the exploration of the adjacent possible. This is before it can start 'evolving' in the complex game of idea development.

  45. Mar 2018
    1. new theories showed a creator is "not necessary".

      god did not create the world. Nothing was ever necessary for it to be created.

  46. Jul 2017
    1. Creation can be viewed simply as the act of producing, or causing to exist.  Construction is the building or assembling of an infrastructure. Construction is equal parts inspiration and perspiration. Construction calls on creativity as well as persistence, flexibility, and revision. Construction asks our students and teachers to focus on the power and patience employed during work process…and not just the final resultant work product.
  47. Jan 2017
    1. The neighborhood has added nearly 1,000 new jobs in the past three years, thanks to the new Method soap factory, a new Wal-Mart Supercenter and retail strip and an incoming Whole Foods Market distribution center expected to open by the end of 2017, said David Doig, president of Chicago Neighborhood Initiatives, the nonprofit developer behind the projects. Another retail center under development, which will include Chipotle and Potbelly restaurants, should add another 30 to 40 jobs, he said.Sixty percent of the jobs have gone to people living within nearby ZIP codes, including many to young people, Doig said. He expects updated youth employment numbers to look much better than the 20 percent drop recorded in the Great Cities report.

      This is a start to a solution, but what does it take to have this happen and is it needed in all areas where there are unemployment challenges?

  48. Jun 2016
    1. . It follows then that the machinery of the institution does not grow up to accommodate needs that are independently perceived but that, rather, the institutional machinery comes first and the needs then follow, as do the ways of meeting them. In short, the work to be done is not what the institution responds to but what it create

      On the creative nature of literary criticism

  49. May 2016
    1. We have arrived, in the course of our consideration of the process of unfoldment of My Idea, towhere the I AM of you, manifesting in your Immortal Soul Body, or in the Thought Imagecreated by My Thinking, is now ready to take on a substantial form, a form suitable for the Earthexpression of My Attributes.This change from a mental to a mortal form took place after the manner and process of allthinking and creating, and is literally described in the Bible, where it says I "formed man of thedust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a livingsoul
    2. n the Eternal there is no Time, or Space, or Individuality,
    3. Now, My Consciousness is the inner essence of all Space and all Life. It is the real Substance ofMy All-comprehending and All-including Mind, whose informing and vitalizing Center iseverywhere and Its limit and circumference nowhere. Within the realm of My Mind alone I liveand move and have My Being. It both contains and fills all things, and Its every vibration andmanifestation is but the expression of some phase of My Be-ing.
    4. But there yet remained the final and culminating medium of expression.Up to this point, while each perfectly expressed some phase of My Nature, yet all existingmediums and avenues were unconscious of Me, and were mediums of expression only as a wireis a medium for conducting heat, light and power.The conditions were ripe, however, for the creation of mediums through which My DivineAttributes could find conscious expression, conscious not only of their relationship to Me, but oftheir ability and power to express My Idea.It was at this moment in Time that You and Your Brothers and Sisters were born into existenceas human expressions, coming into manifestation as you did, similarly with all other mediums, inresponse to My concentrated Thought, in which I saw all the infinite variety of My Attributes inactual expression in entitized forms, each manifesting in predominance some particular phase ofMy Being, and each conscious of Me, Its Creator and Expressor

      Humanity was birthed so God could have mediums that can express God consciously...

    5. Therefore, every real desire you feel, every desire of your heart, comes from Me and must ofnecessity sometime, in some shape or other, be fulfilled.However, as I have no Desire, because I AM All Things, once this Idea of expressing My Self inthis new condition was born, I had but to think, that is, to concentrate or focus My Attentionupon My Idea and Will It to come forth into expression, or, as is told in My other Revelation, toSpeak the Creative Word, and at once did the Cosmic Forces of My BE-ing, set in vibration bythe concentrating of My Will, proceed to attract the necessary elements from the eternalstorehouse of My Mind, and, with My Idea as a nucleus, to combine, form and shape around Itthese elements into what is called a thought-form of a planet, filling it with My Life Substance --My Consciousness -- and endowing it with all the potentialities of My Being.

      All desire is of God (that is all there actually is), yet God does not have desire because God is already the ALL...... To birth the expression of Gods Self in/as the Earth God focussed attention, Will for such a manifestation............

    6. In the beginning, at the dawn of a new Cosmic Day, when the Word consciousness was justawakening and the stillness of Cosmic Night yet prevailed, I The THINKER, conceived MyIdea.This My Idea of My Self in manifestation in a new condition, called Earth expression, I sawcompletely pictured in the mirror of My Omniscient Mind. In this mirror I saw the real Earthshining forth brilliantly in the Cosmos, -- a perfect Sphere, where all the Infinite phases,attributes and powers of My Divine Nature were finding perfect expression through the mediumof Angels of Light, living Messengers of My Will, My Word in the Flesh, even as It is in theCelestial World of the Eternal.I saw My Self manifesting outwardly as Nature, and My Life as the vivifying and evolvingPrinciple back of all Manifestation. I saw Love, the Divine Creative Power, as the animating andvitalizing Force back of all Life, and My Desire to give perfect expression to that Love as thePotential and Real Cause and Reason of the birth of My Idea.All this I saw mirrored in My All-seeing and All-knowing Mind, which could see and reflectonly the Soul of things or their Reality. Therefore this that I saw pictured in My Mind was theReal Earth, in fact, its beginning, its conception into Cosmic being

      Gods inspiration .................

    7. You have been told that the Earth and all things belonging to it are but the outer manifestationsof My Idea, which is now in the process of being thought into perfect expression.You have been shown that My Idea is responsible for all created things, and that It is both theCause and the Reason for all manifestations, yourself and your brothers and sisters included, allof which have been thought into existence by Me, the One Original Thinker and Creator
    8. I, the Creator, AM the Original THINKER, the One and Only THINKER.First know that.As previously stated, man does not think. It is I Who think through his organism. Man believeshe thinks, but before he has awakened to a realization of Me within he only takes the thoughts Iattract to or inspire in his mind, and, mistaking their real meaning and purpose, places a personalconstruction upon them and, through the selfish desires thus aroused, creates for himself all histroubles and brings upon himself all his woes.These apparent mistakes, misconstructions and interferences of man are in reality only theobstacles in his way to be overcome, that he may, through the overcoming, finally develop abody and mind strong and clean and capable enough to express perfectly and consciously thisIdea of Mine eternally working within his Soul.

      It is God that actually thinks..God inspires, yet I mistake their meaning, put a personal meaning to them........... if I let this go fully I will "develop a body mind strong and clean and capable enough to express perfectly and consciously this Idea of Mine eternally working within his Soul."

    9. This is the plan and process of all true thinking, and therefore of all Creation.Listen! You have now and always have had, through this power of thinking, dominion over allthe kingdoms of the Earth. If you but know it. You have now, this moment, only to Think andSPEAK THE WORD, -- realizing your power, and that I, God, your Omniscient, Omnipresent,Omnipotent Self, will bring about the results, -- and the waiting consciousness of the invisiblecells of all matter upon which your will and attention become focused, -- which waitingconsciousness is My consciousness, remember, -- will begin immediately to obey and do exactlyaccording to the image or plans you have prepared by you thinking.For all things are made by the Word, and without the Word was not anything made that wasmade.

      To allow the inspiration to be expressed brings it into manifestation.........

  50. Feb 2016
    1. The viewer should be able to obtain a complete understand from various levels and mediums of information. One way to effectively convey information to the patron is through the use of technology

      Multiple senses should be activated in a museum environment

    1. How does this creation story differ from the others you have read this week?

      In this creation story many people were killed and the others it was peaceful because when humans came to earth they were welcomed by animals or other people offering help until they found somewhere to go.

    2. The new people built huts as Obatala had done, and soon Ife prospered and became a city.

      People came in with new ideas and help expand on the town.

  51. Jan 2016
    1. And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

      I wonder how God imagined all of these things to happen. Did he think that all of this would turn out good for us?

    2. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

      God created all men and women equally based off what he saw in his mind. He did not create people to be better than others.

    3. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

      I think it is creative how people though that god had planned all of this. There's definitely a reason why its light and dark during a 24 hour period.

    1. content as the center of learning

      vs. connection and creation as the center of learning. Of course, you deal with content as a teacher but it through the learner connections that we educe learning.

    1. Again I am going to reiterate: Avoid thinking! If you want to have the stimulation of insight, don’t think. Listen! And listen to me. Then the amplifications which you expect to arrive at through thinking, but will not, will be present in the nature of the dialogue, the connection. Then the specifics that you would hope to arrive at through thinking will come as Knowing, and further substantiate the shift of weight of emphasis of attention to you, and thus disengage you further from the distorted self-perception that you have thought was really you. Again: If you want to understand, don’t think. Listen. Dialogue. Actively speak with me. Actively be with me. This is another way of saying, actively let me in, because to the degree that you let me in, you let yourself into your right Mind, and your full Sanity, and your full embrace of what is Really going on—Reality, the Kingdom of Heaven, the Movement of Creation, the experience of unity, integrity.

      "Don't think, communicate with inner guidance,LISTEN, in this way Real Knowing can occur as it cannot come from the thinking mind.

  52. Mar 2015
    1. But something began to compel me. How might I discover how to see only that Shimmering Radiance? Would it be possible for me to see my brothers and sisters as my Father sees His Children? And, in Truth, I discovered that the way to see with the Eyes of Christ begins with the acceptance that I, as a creator, created in the image of God, indeed, literally choose every experience, and call it to me; that I create the veils through which I view Creation.
    2. If I search throughout all of creation, if I search through the many mansions that exist within the domains of my Father’s Creation — and that Creation is infinite — try as I might, I cannot discover anything that can truly describe you. I cannot find that which is of greater value than you. In Truth, I cannot discover anything that speaks more eloquently of the Love that God is, than your very existence. Therefore, in Truth, I look upon you constantly, and marvel at the Radiance of my Father’s Love.
  53. Feb 2014
    1. I t i s t h i s b e d r o c k p r i n c i p l e o f c o p y r i g h t t h a t m a n d a t e s t h e l a w ' s s e e m i n g l y d i s p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t o f f a c t s a n d f a c t u a l c o m p i l a t i o n s . " N o o n e m a y c l a i m o r i g i n a l i t y a s t o f a c t s . " I d . , § 2 . 1 1 [ A ] , p . 2 - 1 5 7 . T h i s i s b e c a u s e f a c t s d o n o t o w e t h e i r o r i g i n t o a n a c t o f a u t h o r s h i p . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n i s o n e b e t w e e n c r e a t i o n a n d d i s c o v e r y : T h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o f i n d a n d r e p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t h a s n o t c r e a t e d t h e f a c t ; h e o r s h e h a s m e r e l y d i s c o v e r e d i t s e x i s t e n c e . T o b o r r o w f r o m B u r r o w - G i l e s , o n e w h o d i s c o v e r s a f a c t i s n o t i t s " m a k e r " o r " o r i g i n a t o r . " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 . " T h e d i s c o v e r e r m e r e l y f i n d s a n d r e c o r d s . " N i m m e r § 2 . 0 3 [ E ] .

      No one may claim originality to facts because facts do not owe their origin to an act of authorship. The distinction is one between creation vs discovery.

    2. I n T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s , t h e C o u r t a d d r e s s e d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s c o p e o f " w r i t i n g s . " F o r a p a r t i c u l a r w o r k t o b e c l a s s i f i e d " u n d e r t h e h e a d o f w r i t i n g s o f a u t h o r s , " t h e C o u r t d e t e r m i n e d , " o r i g i n a l i t y i s r e q u i r e d . " 1 0 0 U . S . , a t 9 4 . T h e C o u r t e x p l a i n e d t h a t o r i g i n a l i t y r e q u i r e s i n d e p e n d e n t c r e a t i o n p l u s a m o d i c u m o f c r e a t i v i t y : " [ W ] h i l e t h e w o r d w r i t i n g s m a y b e l i b e r a l l y c o n s t r u e d , a s i t h a s b e e n , t o i n c l u d e o r i g i n a l d e s i g n s f o r e n g r a v i n g , p r i n t s , & c . , i t i s o n l y s u c h a s a r e o r i g i n a l , a n d a r e f o u n d e d i n t h e c r e a t i v e p o w e r s o f t h e m i n d . T h e w r i t i n g s w h i c h a r e t o b e p r o t e c t e d a r e t h e f r u i t s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l a b o r , e m b o d i e d i n t h e f o r m o f b o o k s , p r i n t s , e n g r a v i n g s , a n d t h e l i k e . " I b i d . ( e m p h a s i s i n o r i g i n a l ) .

      In The Trade-Mark Cases the Court addressed the constitutional scope of writings saying for a particular work to be classified "under the head of writings of authors," the Court determined, "originality is required"; independent creation plus a modicum of creativity.