109 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2022
    1. In the research phase, you’re just creating a disorganized pile of cards, with quotes, ideas, links, fragments, hunches. There’s no order, no sequence; just a non-linear collection of vaguely related ideas. But as the project takes shape, certain themes begin to emerge, and those become folders housing other cards. Eventually those themes start to map onto actual sections of the book, or individual chapters. At this point, sequence does begin to matter, but you can change the sequence just by dragging cards and folders around in the left hand outline view.

      Example of writing advice that builds the links in after-the-fact instead of cross-linking ideas into initial networks as they're finding them. Compare/contrast this to the creation of these networks in the zettelkasten tradition as well as Sönke Ahrens description.

      There's less upfront work in creating these links at the start than there is in reloading the context in one's brain to create these links after the fact. Collecting ideas without filing, linking, or organizing them upfront also means that one is more likely to only use these ideas in the context of specific projects which one already has in mind rather than keeping them for a lifetime's work which might also create generative projects one hadn't expected.

    1. Diesen gebrochenen Zahlen, welche zunächst als reine Zeichen auftreten, kann in vielen Fällen eine actuelle Bedeutung beigelegt werden.

      A presented meaning can in many cases be attributed to these rational numbers, which at first appear as pure signs,

    2. Wie wir die Regeln der rein formalen Verknüpfungen, d. h. der mit den mentalen Objecten vorzunehmenden Operationen definiren, steht in unserer Willkühr, nur muss eine Bedingung als wesentlich festgehalten werden: nämlich dass irgend welche logische Widersprüche in den- selben nicht implicirt sein dürfen.

      How we define the rules of purely formal operations (Verknüpfungen), i.e., of carrying out operations (Operationen) with mental objects, is our arbitrary choice, except that one essential condition must be adhered to: namely that no logical contradiction may be implied in these same rules.

    3. man sich zu der gegebenen Reihe von Ob- jecten eine inverse hinzudenkt

      one adds an inverse in thought to the given series of objects

    4. Man sieht aber nicht, wie unter — 3 eine reale Substanz verstanden werden kann, wenn das ursprünglich gesetzte Object eine solche ist, und würde im Rechte sein, wenn man — 3 als eine nicht reelle, imaginäre Zahl als eine „falsche" bezeichnete.

      one cannot see how a real substance can be understood by -3... and would be within his rights if he refers to -3 as a non-real, imaginary number, as a "false" one.

    5. Eine andere Definition des Begriffes der formalen Zahlen kann nicht gegeben werden; jede andere muss aus der Anschauung oder Erfahrung Vorstellungen zu Hilfe nehmen, welche zu dem Begriffe in einer nur zufälligen Beziehung stehen, und deren Beschränktheit einer allgemeinen Untersuchung der Rechnungsoperationen unüber- steigliche Hindemisse in den Weg legt..

      A different definition of the concept of the formal numbers cannot be given; every other definition must rely on ideas from intuition or experience, which stand in only an accidental relation to the concept, and the limitations of which place insurmountable obstacles in the way of a general investigation of the arithmetic operations.

    6. Die Bedingung zur Aufstellung einer allgemeinen Arithmetik ist daher eine von aller Anschauung losgelöste, rein intellectuelle Mathem&tik, eine reine Formenlehre, in welcher nicht Quanta oder ihre Bilder, die Zahlen verknüpft werden, sondern intellectuelle Objecte, Gedankendinge, denen actuelle Objecte oder Relationen solcher entsprechen kön- nen, aber nicht müssen.

      The condition for the establishment of a general arithmetic is therefore a purely intellectual mathematics detached from all intuition, a pure theory of form, in which quanta or their images, the numbers, are not combined, but rather intellectual objects, thought-things, to which presented objects or relations of such objects can, but need not, correspond.

    7. Wie überhaupt die Entwicklung mathematischer Begriffe und Vorstellungen historisch zwei entgegengesetzte Phasen zu durchlaufen pflegt, so auch die des Imaginären. Zunächst erschien dieser Begriff' als paradox, streng genommen unzulässig, unmög- lich;

      As the development of mathematical concepts and ideas generally goes historically through two opposed phases, so goes also that of the imaginary numbers. At first this concept appeared as a paradox, strictly inadmissible, impossible;

    8. Wissenschaft leistete, im Laufe der Zeit alle Zweifel an seiner Legitimität nieder und es bildete sich die Ueberzeugung seiner inneren Wahrheit und Nothwendigkeit in solcher Entschiedenheit aus, dass die Schwierigkeiten und Widersprüche, welche man anfangs in ihm bemerkte, kaum noch gefühlt wurden. In diesem zweiten Stadium befindet sich die Frage des Imaginären heut zu Tage ; — indessen bedarf es keines Beweises, dass die eigentliche Natur von Begriffen und Vorstellungen erst dann hinreichend auf- geklärt ist, wenn man unterscheiden kann, was an ihnen noth- wendig ist, und was arbiträr, d. h. zu einem gewissen Zwecke in sie hineingelegt ist.

      however, in the course of time, the essential services which it affords to science subdue all doubts of its legitimacy, and one is convinced in such decisiveness of its inner truth and necessity, that the difficulties and contradictions which one noticed in it at the beginning are hardly felt. Today, the question of imaginary numbers is in this second stage; --- however it needs no proof that the actual nature of concepts and ideas is only sufficiently clarified when one can distinguish what is necessary in them, and what is arbitrary, i.e., is put to a certain purpose in them.

  2. Jan 2022
    1. For most people, the most efficient method to get a quality paper done is to sit down and write it. Short of a project like a dissertation, most people can handle the organization of an essay without a lot of front-loading.  Predictably, then, kids start resenting being forced to outline for no reason. Ditto studying habits or notetaking; most of my “good” students hate taking notes because … why should they bother? They’re going to remember most of what they actually need to know without having to study, not least of which because they’re more likely to be tested on skills than knowledge.
    1. At Packlane, we're all about quality without compromise. Our team of experts will work with you to take your custom packaging concept from proof to press at a steep volume discount. For orders of 2,000 boxes or more, please send us your contact information and we'll get right back to you. For smaller orders, you can get an instant quote with our easy-to-use box designer. To get started, choose your style. You're in good company.

      As I mentioned in a previous comment, I find it interesting to filter a discount or differentiated value by a larger target.

  3. Nov 2021
    1. i think the focus was very much on energy supply and to a limited extent on things like um yeah technologies and like vehicle 01:00:07 technologies for example but um much much less in terms of getting people to particularly in developed countries to use less energy and to change diet and to travel less and fly less and all these these things and i think part of 01:00:19 that and it is also reflected in the fact that it was fairly much absent in the uk's net zero strategy is that it is seen as being politically difficult that it might be a you know it might mean that they that politicians lose votes that 01:00:33 it's just too difficult to get people to change their behavior that it's threatening that it might mean lower standards of living um in developed countries etc so i think kind of it's still it's still seen as something and that that was quite explicit i think in 01:00:45 the forward to the uk strategy um so i think in terms of how we move beyond that that's that's difficult but i think it is about reframing behavior change and demand demand management in 01:00:58 much more positive terms to say this isn't a threat there are actually opportunities there are opportunities to improve people's health and well-being to create green jobs to reskill people in new sectors and 01:01:09 and so on and it is not about you know reducing uh quality of life or well-being it's not about people losing jobs etc so this is i think there's a job here to kind of reframe it in terms of those those opportunities and those 01:01:22 co-benefits so that would be my my initial thought

      Reframing loss as gain is one strategy worth exploring for behavior change. Also explore social tipping points of complex contagion.

    1. social change typically spreads as ‘complex contagions,’ requiring multiple sources of social reinforcement to induce adoption,”

      Climate change requires large investment in behavior change. It is a case of complex contagion, not simple contagion. Wide bridges are the key to bringing about social tipping points of complex contagion.

    1. Politically and legally, the principle of subsidiarity ensures that education remains a national competence for EU Member States (Ertl, 2006), while, theoretically, scholarly research points to the continued relevance of the state within a multi-scalar governance complex (Levinson et al., 2020; Tröhler, 2020).

      multi-scalar governance complex (Levinson et al.,<br> 2020; Tröhler, 2020).

    1. Politically and legally, the principle of subsidiarity ensures that education remains a nationalcompetence for EU Member States (Ertl, 2006), while, theoretically, scholarly research points tothe continued relevance of the state within a multi-scalar governance complex

      multi-scalar governance complex

    1. We are also concerned primarily with human activity systems. One individual alone can rarely affect a situation that they are part of, in ways that bring about improvements. This is partly because of the unpredictable way in which human activity systems function, which cannot be anticipated, and partly because bringing about such improvements often requires collaboration or negotiation among individuals – interactions of a particular kind.

      community is more likely to make large-scale change than a single voice.

    1. a stoichiometry of approximately one complex molecule per actin monomer

      This seems like an unreasonably high stoichiometry of Arp2/3 complexes per actin subunit; we now know that each Arp2/3 complex covers a few subunits, so there shouldn't be enough room on the filament to fit 1:1 Arp2/3 complex/actin

  4. Oct 2021
  5. Aug 2021
  6. Jul 2021
  7. Jun 2021
    1. The apartment that we moved into in California was a one-bedroom apartment. It was a big complex and I remember it. There was a pool in the middle and there were a lot of families like us that shared a one-bedroom apartment. And there were eight to twelve people in this one space, and we were trying to find something bigger, but it was impossible.

      Time in the US, Arriving in the United States, Living Situation

  8. Apr 2021
  9. Mar 2021
  10. Feb 2021
    1. AI agents can acquire novel behaviors as they interact with the world around them and with other agents. The behaviors learned from such interactions are virtually impossible to predict, and even when solutions can be described mathematically, they can be “so lengthy and complex as to be indecipherable,” according to the paper.

      The sheer number of interacting variables that you'd need to track makes it impossible to make any accurate predictions.

  11. Jan 2021
  12. Nov 2020
    1. active site

      This is the part of the enzyme where the substrate binds. The substrate enters the active site to form an enzyme-substrate complex.

  13. Oct 2020
    1. catabolic

      This is the process of breaking down complex substances within a living organism into smaller ones. This process also releases energy unlike anabolism.

  14. Aug 2020
    1. Clausen, T. M., Sandoval, D. R., Spliid, C. B., Pihl, J., Painter, C. D., Thacker, B. E., Glass, C. A., Narayanan, A., Majowicz, S. A., Zhang, Y., Torres, J. L., Golden, G. J., Porell, R., Garretson, A. F., Laubach, L., Feldman, J., Yin, X., Pu, Y., Hauser, B., … Esko, J. D. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 Infection Depends on Cellular Heparan Sulfate and ACE2. BioRxiv, 2020.07.14.201616. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.14.201616

  15. Jul 2020
    1. is to make sure that students have sufficient background knowledge to stimulate interest and avoid confusion.

      Scaffolding teaching? Providing those hints that are mentioned earlier in the article?

  16. Jun 2020
  17. May 2020
  18. Apr 2020
  19. Jan 2020
    1. What does it mean for a matrix UUU to be unitary? It’s easiest to answer this question algebraically, where it simply means that U†U=IU^\dagger U = IU†U=I, that is, the adjoint of UUU, denoted U†U^\daggerU†, times UUU, is equal to the identity matrix. That adjoint is, recall, the complex transpose of UUU:

      Starting to get a little bit more into linear algebra / complex numbers. I'd like to see this happen more gradually as I haven't used any of this since college.

  20. Nov 2019
    1. A large part of the ‘resources’ conversation in OER is this kind of problem. Cheaper access to books. More people using books. Nice measurable problems that can be fixed.

      Lowering costs for learning materials via OER: A complicated problem vs what Dave calls complex problems, like open pedagogies.

  21. Oct 2019
  22. Aug 2019
    1. Context notes are used as a map to a series of notes. A context note that outlines a more complex concept or broader subject, using links to other notes in the process. For example, while I’m reading a book, I build an outline of the things I find relevant, based on my highlights and notes of the book. Each of the outline’s items links to a separate note explaining the idea in more detail, and usually contains the highlighted text of the book.
  23. Jul 2019
    1. How will all educators and society have a deliberate coming together to envision equity as a guiding framework for the implementation of NGSS?

      question interrogates problem of... wow, hard for me to encapsulate in a sentence. How about: Us teachers and other stakeholders need to engage in dialogue/action around equity and NGSS in our own local connections yet be aware of and engage with other local dialogues and furthermore transform/be-transformed-by the emerging, higher level discourse. np

  24. Feb 2019
    1. The Two Sides of the H-LAM/T System

      When I view this diagram, I am reminded of Robert Rosen's Modeling Relation, an image of which is here The Modeling Relation grew out of research in Relational Biology which was the first mathematical biology to recognize that relations among organism components and between those components and the environment are key to understanding complex adaptive systems.

    2. It is the augmentation means that serve to break down a large problem in such a way that the human being can walk through it with his little steps, and it is the structure or organization of these little steps or actions that we discuss as process hierarchies.

      As I begin to read this (as I did back in 2000 when I was introduced to Doug) I begin to think in terms of reductionism as a practice in the face of problems which are highly complex, nonlinear, and which do not submit to chunking.

    1. nd often differs from his own-from that which he had yesterday, or WilJ have tomorrow.

      this stands out to me that a complex idea in the mind of one person will be fluid and different from day to day, my gut reaction was that an individual's "complex ideas" would remain rather unaltered for extended periods of time, even a lifetime. Maybe as one develops throughout life (adolescence to adulthood) one's thoughts would change, but not day to day

  25. Sep 2018
    1. Whilespatial biases may contribute to these findings,asnodes belonging to the same module tend to be anatomically colocalized [7,8],they cannot explain these effects entirely [94,95].

      Very nice review. Please note the reference [94] (Pantazatos et al.) is misplaced because they did not argue that spatial biases cannot entirely explain the putative links between CGE and functional segregation. Instead, they argued there was insufficient evidence in the original Richiardi et al. study linking elevated CGE with resting state functional networks, and that spatial biases may in fact entirely account for their findings. To describe the debate/exchange more accurately, I would suggest replacing the below sentence

      “While spatial biases may contribute to these findings, as nodes belonging to the same module tend to be anatomically colocalized [7,8], they cannot explain these effects entirely [94,95].”

      with the below paragraph:

      “Spatial biases may contribute to these findings, as nodes belonging to the same module tend to be anatomically colocalized [7,8]. Pantazatos et al. argued that these findings are entirely explained by spatial biases [94]. They showed that elevated CGE, as defined in the original Richiardi et al. study, falls monotonically as longer distance edges are removed. Moreover, they showed that 1,000 sets of randomly spaced modules all have significantly high CGE when using the same null distribution defined in the original Richiardi et al. analyses. Therefore, elevated CGE is not specifically related to functional segregation as defined by resting state functional networks, which is in direct contradiction to the main conclusion of the original Richiardi et al. study. Since randomly placed modules do not align (spatially) with any distributed pattern of functional segregation, the finding of elevated CGE may instead be attributed entirely to anatomical colocalization of the nodes within each module. In their rebuttal to [94], Richiardi et al. argue spatial biases cannot explain their findings entirely [95]. However, the authors do not offer an explanation for significantly high CGE observed for randomly spaced sets of modules, other than to note that nodes tend to be closer on average compared to when modules are defined by resting state fMRI. Future work is required to dissociate the effects of spatially proximity on relationships between CGE and spatially distributed functional networks.”

  26. Feb 2018
  27. Oct 2017
    1. Military Industrial Complex:

      1. Eisenhower has seen the consequences of this intersection of military power and his own "new look" policy

      Presidential speeches can be measured by how long we talk about them. Still one of the most referenced presidential speeches ever given.

      IRAN — Mohammed Mossafegh (1951–1954)

      • First military Coup during CIA golden age
      • US tells Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1941–1979) that they will take over the country unless he overthrows Mossafegh.
      • For 20+ years we supported a dictator who murdered his own people
      • Any nation state has the option to buy out foreign companies

      Guatemala — Jacobo Arbenz Guzman (1951–1954)

      • Democratically elected leader, called for Progressive Reform (second President to do so)
      • Nationalizing land (US decided it looked like Communism)
      • Guzman runs into problems with the United Fruit Company, who had been cheating on their taxes, undervaluing their land prices. Government seeks to purchase land to nationalize it, and wants to buy it for the price that the UFC valued their land for.
      • UFC and US Government set up a military Coup. Using radio broadcast propaganda, pretending that an army is ravaging the countryside. Guzman believes the propaganda and flees. We set up a dictator.
  28. May 2017
    1. The dance (or, as I prefer to call it, the complex ecolo

      This is an interesting move in terms of form. Hayles herself is the one who introduced the term "dance" and then immediately amends it parenthetically to comment that she prefers the term "complex ecology." I'm not sure why she chose to leave both of those thoughts in, but I like it.

  29. Apr 2017
    1. This is why people can play the piano with their fingers but not with their toes.

      That does not really explain why there are very talented musicians that have limb defects, but I suppose that similar to a blind person being able to hear better, their brains adjust (like complex-adaptive systems do) and reassign a new input-element (e.g. the feet) to a left-over motoric system(e.g. the hands).

  30. Mar 2017
    1. There may well be a dominant reading, but this can erode over time if the “interpretive community” (Fish 1980) to which it speaks changes or the message lost entirely if that com-munity is decisively disrupted or displaced.14
  31. Oct 2016
    1. Oklahoma Correctional Industries; workers scan the original photos and prepare metadata

      We can make the argument here that the University of North Texas, the Oklahoma Historical Society, and the Ethics in Journalism Foundation support de facto slave labor. Let's be honest here: "workers" = "prisoners"

  32. Jun 2016
    1. And now we’re besties again.

      I can relate. I have deep respect for AK but often find myself flipping back and forth between strong agreement and feeling somewhat off-put by what he writes. That seems like a healthier relationship to have with any public intellectual though than 100% agreement 100% of the time. I'm so glad his writing exists in the world and I'm glad yours does too. Seems like this kind of layered relationship is just part of dealing with complex systems. :-)

  33. Jan 2016
    1. Stupid models are extremely useful. They are usefulbecause humans are boundedly rational and because language is imprecise. It is often only by formalizing a complex system that we can make progress in understanding it. Formal models should be a necessary component of the behavioral scientist’s toolkit. Models are stupid, and we need more of them.

      Formal models are explicit in the assumptions they make about how the parts of a system work and interact, and moreover are explicit in the aspects of reality they omit.

      -- Paul Smaldino

    2. Microeconomic models based on rational choice theory are useful for developing intuition, and may even approximate reality in a fewspecial cases, but the history of behavioral economics shows that standard economic theory has also provided a smorgasbord of null hypotheses to be struck down by empirical observation.
    3. Where differences between conditions are indicated, avoid the mistake of running statistical analyses as if you were sampling from a larger population.

      You already have a generating model for your data – it’s your model. Statistical analyses on model data often involve modeling your model with a stupider model. Don’t do this. Instead, run enough simulations to obtain limiting distributions.

    4. A model’s strength stemsfromits precision.

      I have come across too many modeling papers in which the model – that is, the parts, all their components, the relationships between them, and mechanisms for change – is not clearly expressed. This is most common with computational models (such as agent-based models), which can be quite complicated, but also exists in cases of purely mathematical models.

    5. However, I want to be careful not to elevate modelers above those scientists who employ other methods.

      This is important for at least two reasons, the first and foremost of which is that science absolutely requires empirical data. Those data are often painstaking to collect, requiring clever, meticulous, and occasionally tedious labor. There is a certain kind of laziness inherent in the professional modeler, who builds entire worlds from his or her desk using only pen, paper, and computer. Relatedly, many scientists are truly fantastic communicators, and present extremely clear theories that advance scientific understanding without a formal model in sight. Charles Darwin, to give an extreme example, laid almost all the foundations of modern evolutionary biology without writing down a single equation.

    6. Ultimately,the theory has been shown to be incorrect, and has been epistemically replaced by the theory of General Relativity. Nevertheless, the theory is able to make exceptionally good approximations of gravitational forces –so good that NASA’s moon missions have relied upon them.

      General Relativity may also turn out to be a "dumb model". https://twitter.com/worrydream/status/672957979545571329

    7. Table 1.Twelve functions served by false models. Adapted with permissionfrom Wimsatt

      Twelve good uses for dumb models, William Wimsatt (1987).

    8. To paraphrase Gunawardena (2014), a model is a logical engine for turning assumptions into conclusions.

      By making our assumptions explicit, we can clearly assess their implied conclusions. These conclusions will inevitably be flawed, because the assumptions are ultimately incorrect or at least incomplete. By examining how they differ from reality, we can refine our models, and thereby refine our theories and so gradually we might become less wrong.

    9. the stupidity of a model is often its strength. By focusing on some key aspects of a real-world system(i.e., those aspectsinstantiated in the model), we can investigate how such a system would work if, in principle, we really couldignore everything we are ignoring. This only sounds absurd until one recognizes that, in our theorizing about the nature of reality –both as scientists and as quotidianhumans hopelessly entangled in myriad webs of connection and conflict –weignore thingsall the time.
    10. The generalized linear model, the work horse ofthe social sciences, models data as being randomly drawn from a distribution whose mean varies according to some parameter. The linear model is so obviously wrong yet so useful that the mathematical anthropologist Richard McElreathhas dubbed it “the geocentric model of applied statistics,”in reference to the Ptolemaic model of the solar system that erroneously placed the earth rather than the sun at the center but nevertheless produced accurate predictions of planetary motion as they appeared in the night sky(McElreath 2015).

      A model that approximates some aspect of reality can be very useful, even if the model itself is flat-out wrong.

      But on the other hand, we can't accept approximation of reality as hard proof that a model is correct.

    11. Unfortunately, my own experience working with complex systems and working among complexity scientistssuggests that we are hardly immune to such stupidity. Consider the case of Marilyn Vos Savantand the Monty Hall problem.

      Many people, including some with training in advanced mathematics, contradicted her smugly. But a simple computer program that models the situation can demonstrate her point.

      2/3 times, your first pick will be wrong. Every time that happens, the door Monty didn't open is the winner. So switching wins 2/3 times.

      http://marilynvossavant.com/game-show-problem/

    12. Mitch Resnick, in his book Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams, details his experiences teaching gifted high school students about the dynamics of complex systems using artificial life models (Resnick 1994). He showed them how organized behavior could emerge when individualsresponded only to local stimuli using simple rules, without the need for a central coordinating authority. Resnick reports that even after weeks spent demonstrating the principles of emergence,using computer simulations that the students programmed themselves, many students still refused to believe that what they were seeing could really work without central leadership.
  34. Apr 2015
    1. First, the domain is a poor candidate because the domain of all entities relevant to neurobiological function is extremely large, highly fragmented into separate subdisciplines, and riddled with lack of consensus (Shirky, 2005).

      Probably a good thing to add to the Complex Data integration workshop write up

  35. Nov 2013