104 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2021
    1. But a better path forward is one of true global cooperation based on mutual benefit and reciprocity.

      This is the case for so many human endeavors.

      How might game theory help to ensure it? Are there other factors that could assist as well?

  2. May 2021
  3. Apr 2021
    1. absence of cooperation with the supervisory authority in order to remedy the infringement and mitigate the possible adverse effects of it
  4. Mar 2021
  5. Feb 2021
  6. Jan 2021
  7. Nov 2020
    1. simply assuming that humans adopt norms, however, is not sufficient to predict behavior in a social dilemma, especially in very large groups with no arrangements for communication. even with strong preferences to follow norms, “observed behavior may vary by context because the perception of the ‘right thing’ would change” (de oliveira, croson, and eckel 2009: 19). various aspects of the context in which individuals interact affect how indi-viduals learn about the situation they are in and about the others with whom they are interacting. individual differences do make a difference, but the context of interactions also affects behavior over time (Walker and ostrom 2009). Biologists recognize that an organism’s appearance and behavior are affected by the environment in which it develops.for example, some plants produce large, thin leaves (which enhance photosynthetic photon harvest) in low light, and narrow, thicker leaves (which conserve water) in high light; certain insects develop wings only if they live in crowded conditions (and hence are likely to run out of adequate food in their current location). such environmentally contingent development is so commonplace that it can be regarded as a universal property of living things. (Pfennig and ledón-rettig 2009: 268)social scientists also need to recognize that individual behavior is strongly affected by the context in which interactions take place rather than being simply a result of individual differences.

      +10 and this is culture!

  8. Oct 2020
    1. heterogeneous networks have been found to be effective promoters of the evolution of cooperation, since there are advantages to being a cooperator when you are a hub, and hubs tend to stabilize networks in equilibriums where levels of cooperation are high (Ohtsuki et al. 2006), (Pacheco et al. 2006), (Lieberman et al. 2005), (Santos and Pacheco 2005).
    1. And in the meantime, if less human interaction enables us to forget how to cooperate, then we lose our advantage.

      It may seem odd, but I think a lot of the success of the IndieWeb movement and community is exactly this: a group of people has come together to work and interact and increase our abilities to cooperate to make something much bigger, more diverse, and more interesting than any of us could have done separately.

  9. Sep 2020
  10. Aug 2020
  11. Jul 2020
  12. Jun 2020
  13. May 2020
    1. Collective agency occurs when people act together, such as a social movement
    2. cooperation between two subjects with a mutual feeling of control is what James M. Dow, Associate Professor of Philosophy at Hendrix College, defines as "joint agency."
  14. Apr 2020
    1. The OA CG will still continue driving use cases and requirements, and further discussion of annotation issues that are outside the scope of the Web Annotation WG. It's expected that there will be an ongoing relationship between the two groups, and an overlap of participants.
  15. Mar 2020
    1. It’s perhaps a positive sign that, despite how polarized people are worried that society is, people can pull together and try to get things done and support each other and recognize people who are heroes on the front lines fighting this stuff
  16. Feb 2020
    1. cooperativeness is not considered part of a life history strategy in anthropological research, and has been explicitly excluded as being part of a life history strategy in at least some work in biology

      It is interesting. The level of cooperation, and the number of people involved vastly change the calculation of available energy, so at the very least these two ideas are intimately related.

  17. Nov 2019
  18. Feb 2019
    1. 7. Team Cooperation

      The below reminds me of working in Google Docs, which can indeed be a delightful site for collaboration.

      Still--and perhaps I've just been monastic in my stance while reading Engelbart--I wonder about the power of isolated individual deliberation ahead of or in some other less immediate relation to the cooperation described here.

  19. Aug 2018
    1. Based on key areas of current cooperation between the UK and the EU, these accords should cover: a.science and innovation; b.culture and education; c.overseas development assistance and international action; d.defence research and capability development; and e.space.

      Specific cooperation accords on science & international action

  20. Dec 2017
    1. Although language seems to us so obviously useful that its cost is hard to discern, there is some truth to Thomas Hobbes’s explanation of why humans find it so much more difficult to cooperate than ants do. Ants don’t require a tyrannical monster to enforce cooperation, Hobbes argued in Leviathan (1651), mainly because they don’t talk. They can be harmed but not offended; they can’t make agreements and therefore cannot break them; and they don’t ‘strive to reform and innovate’ – all of which spares them quarrels, disagreements and generally bad feelings.
  21. Dec 2016
    1. I'm most interested in understanding cooperation, that is to say, why people are willing to act for the greater good rather than their narrow self-interest. In thinking about that question, there's both a scientific part of understanding how the selfish process of natural selection and strategic reasoning could give rise to this cooperative behavior, and also the practical question of what we can do to make people more cooperative in real-world settings.    
  22. Apr 2016
    1. Cooperation, sharing with no direct benefit

      Cooperation = open sharing = education

    2. We are naturally creative and curious. We just have to build systems that nurture our inherent abilities. Schools do not do that.

      Not only do schools not do that, traditionally they have "taught" creativity and curiosity out of students.

  23. Dec 2015
    1. When Bernie Sanders talks about a 'revolution' in America, he's talking about getting millions of people deeply involved in the political process. I think he's also talking about getting millions of people personally involved, in their communities, in building solutions that don't need government involvement, such as volunteer-based tutoring, mentoring and learning organizations.
    1. In addition, the high sociability, and cooperative nature, of human economic systems, entailed selection pressure for a quality still poorly defined: emotional intelligence [vi]. This is linked, not only to qualities for successful interaction with other people and qualities such as impulse control, but also to some of the “dark triad” traits that have been identified in the research on human psychology: narcissistic, manipulative (subclinical psychopath), and Machiavellian tendencies.

      -- Helga Vierich (in the comments)

    2. Corporate businesses are owned by absentee shareholders who do not participate in managing the enterprises or doing the work. Everyone -- from the CEO down to the office janitor -- works as an "employee" of the corporation. The collective resources of the corporation ensure the collective security of the myriad owners and employees.<br> ...<br> Yet Rand wants to style opulently renumerated corporate managers as rugged entrepreneurs who did all the work themselves. What about the hundreds, thousands of employees who contribute to the collective effort that builds and maintains a "big business"?

      When they moved to Galt's Gulch, did the titans mine their own ore and refine metals in their personal backyard foundries? Build their own airplanes from tree leaves and chewing gum like McGiver? Dig oil wells with their bare hands and crack gasoline over an open fire?

      -- Derryl Hermanutz (in the comments)

    3. I am all for individual life, and individual liberty - those are my highest values. In that I align well with Ayn Rand.Where we part company is in how those values are best served.

      I am clear that cooperation is the most powerful way to serve those values. And I am clear that Axelrod demonstrated that raw cooperation is always vulnerable to cheating, and requires secondary strategies to prevent cheats from dominating and destroying the cooperative. Arguably, many of those who control the flows of capital in today's world can be characterised as using cheating strategies to do so, however lawful those strategies happen to be."

      -- Ted Howard (in the comments)

    4. Taggart and Reardon made their fortunes in the railroad and steel sectors, industries that received massive public subsidies. In the exaggerated black-and-white world that Rand creates, taxation and public accountability over private industry amounts to collectivist tyranny.

      -- Eric Michael Johnson (in the comments)

    5. in 100 percent of LPA societies—ranging from the Andaman Islanders of the Indian Ocean archipelago to the Inuit of Northern Alaska—generosity or altruism is always favored toward relatives and nonrelatives alike, with sharing and cooperation being the most cited moral values. Of course, this does not mean that everyone in these societies always follow these values.

      LPA (Late-Pleistocene Appropriate) - hunter-gatherers

      What makes these violations of moral rules so instructive is how societies choose to deal with them. Ultimately, it all comes down to gossip.

      "Gossip" is central to reputations, group decisions, and fear of ostracism.

      "Moral Origins: The Evolution of Virtue, Altruism, and Shame", Christopher Boehm

  24. Oct 2015
    1. People fail the acknowledgment phase of the apology when they make vague and incomplete apologies (“for whatever I did”); use the passive voice (“mistakes were made”); make the apology conditional (“if mistakes have been made”); question whether the victim was damaged or minimize the offense (“to the degree you were hurt” or “only a few enlisted soldiers were guilty at Abu Ghraib”); use the empathic “sorry” instead of acknowledging responsibility; apologize to the wrong party; or apologize for the wrong offense.
    2. Within the above structure of apology, an effective apology can generate forgiveness and reconciliation if it satisfies one or more of seven psychological needs in the offended party. The first and most common healing factor is the restoration of dignity, which is critical when the offense itself is an insult or a humiliation. Another healing factor is the affirmation that both parties have shared values and agree that the harm committed was wrong. Such apologies often follow racial or gender slurs because they help establish what kind of behavior is beyond the pale. A third healing factor is validation that the victim was not responsible for the offense. This is often necessary in rape and child abuse cases when the victim irrationally carries some of the blame. A fourth healing factor is the assurance that the offended party is safe from a repeat offense; such an assurance can come when an offender apologizes for threatening or committing physical or psychological harm to a victim. Reparative justice, the fifth healing factor, occurs when the offended sees the offending party suffer through some type of punishment. A sixth healing factor is reparation, when the victim receives some form of compensation for his or her pain. Finally, the seventh healing factor is a dialogue that allows the offended parties to express their feelings toward the offenders and even grieve over their losses. Examples of such exchanges occurred, with apologies offered, during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings in South Africa.
    3. Yet the embarrassed smile is more than just a smile; it has accompanying arabesques, muscle actions in the mouth that alter the appearance of the smile. The most frequent one is the lip press, a sign of inhibition. When people encounter strangers in the street, they often acknowledge each other with this modest smile. Just as common are lip puckers, a faint kiss gracing the embarrassed smile as it unfolds during its two-to-three second attempt to make peace.
    4. This view might make sense for solitary species, like the golden hamster, which flees upon being attacked, or territorial species, like many birds, that rely upon territorial arrangements to avoid deadly conflicts. But many mammals, and in particular primates, need each other to survive. Ostracism and marginalization are tickets to shortened lives. Among humans, individuals who have fewer and less healthy social bonds have been shown to live shorter lives, have compromised immune function, and be more vulnerable to disease. Our sociality, and that of many nonhuman primates, requires a mechanism that brings individuals together in the midst of conflict and aggression.
    5. This offers us insight into the true nature of embarrassment: I have discovered that this subtle display—the averted gaze, the pressed lips—is a sign of our respect for others, our appreciation of their view of things, and our commitment to the moral and social order. Far from reflecting confusion, it turns out that embarrassment can be a peacemaking force that brings people together—both during conflict and after breeches of the social contract, when there’s otherwise great potential for violence and disorder. I’ve even found evidence that facial displays of embarrassment have deep evolutionary roots, and that this seemingly inconsequential emotion provides us with a window into the ethical brain.
    6. Dacher documents his research on embarrassment, an often involuntary emotional response to having committed a social faux pas. People all around the world reflexively signal appeasement when they feel embarrassed, which serves as an unspoken acknowledgement of wrongdoing or having broken a social contract. This submissive, apologetic signal serves to avoid or prevent--rather than invite--conflict.  
  25. Sep 2015
    1. The first half of the twentieth century was drenched in the blood spilled by German and Japanese aggression, yet only a few decades later it is hard to think of two countries more pacific. Sweden spent the 17th century rampaging through Europe, yet it is now an icon of nurturing tranquility. Humans have invented the small nomadic band and the continental megastate, and have demonstrated a flexibility whereby uprooted descendants of the former can function effectively in the latter. We lack the type of physiology or anatomy that in other mammals determine their mating system, and have come up with societies based on monogamy, polygyny, and polyandry. And we have fashioned some religions in which violent acts are the entrée to paradise and other religions in which the same acts consign one to hell. Is a world of peacefully coexisting human Forest Troops possible? Anyone who says, “No, it is beyond our nature,” knows too little about primates, including ourselves.
    2. Is it possible to achieve the cooperative advantages of a small group without having the group reflexively view outsiders as the Other? One often encounters pessimism in response to this question, based on the notion that humans, as primates, are hard-wired for xenophobia. Some brain-imaging studies have appeared to support this view in a particularly discouraging way. There is a structure deep inside the brain called the amygdala, which plays a key role in fear and aggression, and experiments have shown that when subjects are presented with a face of someone from a different race, the amygdala gets metabolically active—aroused, alert, ready for action. This happens even when the face is presented subliminally, which is to say, so rapidly that the subject does not consciously see it. More recent studies, however, should mitigate this pessimism. Test a person who has a lot of experience with people of different races, and the amygdala does not activate.
    1. In a first analysis, data showed that people who took less than 10 seconds to decide how much to give gave approximately 15 percent more to the common pool than people who took longer than 10 seconds.

      Public Goods Game

    2. it suggests that maybe these prefrontal regionsthat are really important for decision making have to work a little bit harder when we decidenot to cooperate when we decide to compete or defect at the expense of the other person.
    3. we experience pleasurewhen we cooperate knowing that our cooperation is going to lead to benefits to the peoplethat we’re cooperating with.
    4. they found that reward signalling increased with reciprocated cooperation, inother words if I cooperate and I learn that you have alsocooperated then we’re both benefitting from this mutual cooperation there is greater rewardactivation or reward signalling gets boosted. And then also they found that when peoplecooperate but then are met with not cooperation in other words, unreciprocated cooperationdecreases activation in these reward processing areas.
    5. basketball campers play a basketball shooting game and in one condition it was orientedto be competitive against each other in another condition it was more focused on team playand cooperation. Afterwards he asked the kids how much fun they had, and he found that theyreally found the cooperative team play more fun and more motivating.
  26. Mar 2014
    1. Artaphrenes sent a messenger to Susa with the news of what Aristagoras said, and when Darius himself too had consented to the plan, he equipped two hundred triremes

      Hdt. 5.32 Darius grants 200 triremes to Aristagoras to lead his dastardly assault against Naxos.

    2. This, then, is what Darius said, and after appointing Artaphrenes, his father's son, to be viceroy of Sardis

      Hdt. 5.25 Darius appoints Artaphrenes to governorship of Sardis as he moves to Susa, 510 BCE. The moving of Darius' seat of power from Sardis to Susa sets of the chain reactions of rebellions which follow in the rest of book 5.

    3. The Persians who had been sent as envoys came to Amyntas and demanded earth and water for Darius the king. He readily gave to them what they asked and invited them to be his guests, preparing a dinner of great splendor and receiving them hospitably.

      Hdt. 5.18 Amyntas of Macedon surrenders to the Achaemenid messengers peacefully knowing that the forces of Macedonia are no match for the huge armies of Darius.

    4. Then Darius wrote a letter to Megabazus, whom he had left as his general in Thrace, bidding him take the Paeonians from their houses, and bring them to him, men, women, and children.

      Hdt. 5.14 Darius orders his general Megabazus to capture the Paeonians, furthering the Achaemenid incursion into the Hellespont.

    5. Hdt. 5.11 Darius gifts the gift of governorships to two of his most loyal men, Histiaios/Histiaeus of Miletus and Coes/Koes of Mytilene. 512 BCE

  27. Feb 2014
    1. She gave him a dagger and hid him behind the same door

      1.12. Candaules' wife arms Gyges and hides him in Candaules' bedroom.

    2. Then he asked: “Since you force me against my will to kill my master, I would like to know how we are to lay our hands on him.”

      1.11. Gyges, having failed to persuade Candaules' wife not to force him to make this choice, asks how they will kill Candaules.

    3. Cyrus called together the leading Persians and laid the matter before them, asking them to advise him which he should do. They all spoke to the same end, urging him to let Tomyris and her army enter his country.

      1.206 Cyrus consults his generals and other leading men about Queen Tomyris' response to his marriage proposal.